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WAP Chapter 13

The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties

Yangdi Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618.
Li Yuan Also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu
Chang'an Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time
Ministry of Rites Administered examinations to students from Chinese gov. schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
Jinshi Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature' became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office
pure land Buddhism Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society
Zen Buddhism Known as Chan Buddhism in China; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic
Chan Buddhism Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society
Empress Wu Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Wuzong Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology.
Xuanzong Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755; although he encountered overpansion
Yang Guifei Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of her relatives into royal administration led to revolt
Zhao Kuangyin Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent
Liao dynasty Founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan people from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China
Khitans Nomadic peoples of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
Junks Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
Flying money Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
Footbinding Practice in Chinese society of mutilating women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to cinfine women to the household
Li Bo (701-762) Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings. The name is alternately spelled Li Po and Li Bai.
Zhu Xi Most prominent of neo-confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
neo-confucians Revived anicent confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Tangut Rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of regional kingdoms during period of Southern Song; conquered by Mongols in 1226
Xi Xia Kingdom of Tangut people, north of Song kingdom, in mid-11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resources and burdened Chinese peasantry
Wang Anshi Confucian scholar and chief minster of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society
Jurchents Founders of the Jin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to South
Jin Kingdom north of the Song Empire; established by Jurchens in 1155 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended 1234
Southern Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279; carved out of the much larger domains ruled by the Tang and northern Song; culturally one of the most glorious reigns in Chinese history
Grand Canal Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilizations on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; neatly 1200 miles long
Created by: samantha.garza