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chapter 13 voc

World History

Yangdi Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618
Li Yuan Also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu
Chang'an capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time
Ministry of rites Administered examinations to student from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars
Jinshi granted to students who passed the most difficult chinese literature, became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office
Pure land Buddism Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese buddism; popular among masses of Chinese society
Zen Buddism known as chan Buddism in China; stressed meditation and the appreciation of natural and artistic beauty
Empress Wu Tang ruler 690-705 c.e. in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created
Chan Buddhism Known as Zen in Japan stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty, popular with member of elite Chinese society
Wuzong Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology
xuanzong leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713, although he encouraged over expansion
Yang Guifei Royal concubine during reigon of Xuanzong; introduction of her relatives into royal administration led to revolt
Zhao Kuangyin Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent
Liao Founded in 907 by nomadic khitan people from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China
Khitans nomadic peoples of Monchuria; military superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture, forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century
Zhu Xi Most prominent of neo-confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
Neo confucians Revived ancient confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences
Tangut Rulers of Xi Xia kingdom of northwest China; one of the regional kingdoms during period of southern Song; conquered by the mongols on 1226
Xi Xia kingdom to Tangut people; north of Song kingdom, in mid 11th century; collected tribute that drained Song resource and hundred Chinese peasantry
Wang Anashi Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society
Jurchens Founders of the Jin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south
Jin kingdom north of the song empire; established by Jurchens in 1115 after overthrowing Liao dynasty; ended 1234
Southern Song dynasty from 1127 to 1279