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Chapter 13&14

China

TermDefinition
Yangdi- Second member of Sui dynasty; murdered his father to gain throne; restored Confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618.
Li Yuan- Also known as the Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu.
Chang'an- Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at the time.
Ministry of Rites- Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars.
Jinshi- Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office.
pure land Buddhism- Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among masses of Chinese society.
Chan Buddhism- Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society.
Zen Buddhism- Known as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty.
Empress Wu- Tang ruler 690-705 C.E. in china; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.
Wuzong- Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840's; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology.
Xuanzong- Leading Chinese emperor of Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, although the encouraged over expansion.
Yang Guifei- Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of her relatives into royal administration led to revolt.
Zhao Kuangyin- Founder of Song dynasty; originally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Tauzi; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent.
Liao dynasty- Founded in 907 by nomadic Khitan peoples from Manchuria; maintained independence from Song dynasty in China.
Khitans- Nomadic peoples of Mucharia; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century.
Junks- Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula
flying money- Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
footbinding- Practice in Chinese society of mutilating women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Li Bo- (701-762) Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings. The name is alternately spelled Li Po and Li Bai.
Taika reforms- Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
The Tale of Genji, Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society
Fujiwara Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
bushi Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies
samurai Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor
seppuku Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor
Taira- Powerful Japanese family in 11th century
Created by: Braedon116