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What was the Enlightenment? law, government, politics intellectual movement
When did the Enlightenment period take place? 1600s (17th century)
Where did the Enlightenment period mainly take place? England and France
Where was Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Mary Wollstonecraft from? England
What were Thomas Hobbes' main ideas? -people are cruel -people need a strong central government to control them -absolute monarchy is the ideal form of government
What were Montesquieu's main ideas? -separation of powers -checks and balances
What were John Locke's main ideas? -all people are born with natural rights to life, liberty, and property -government can't take away these rights -if a government is corrupt it should be overthrown
What is Thomas Hobbes' most famous work? the Leviathan
What did the Leviathan talk about? the sovereign's ability to tax, believed equal justice includes equal imposition of taxes
What is John Locke's most famous work? Two Treatises on Government
What did Two Treatises on Government talk about? contests proofs from scripture, concluding that no government can be justified by an appeal to the divine right of kings
Where was Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Jean Jacques Rousseau from? France
What were Voltaire's main ideas? -religious tolerance -separation of church and state -freedom of speech
What is Voltaire's most famous work? Candide
What did Candide talk about? begins in German town of Westphalia where a young man lives in the castle of Baron of Thunder-ten-tronckh then gets tutored by a philosopher
What is Montesquieu's most famous work? The Spirit of Laws
What did The Spirit of Laws talk about? political theory
What were Jean Jacques Rousseau's main ideas? -people are good but become corrupt because of society -people agree to give up some of their rights in order to receive protection from the government
What is Jean Jacques Rousseau's most famous work? The Social Contract
What did The Social Contract talk about? theory on best way to establish a political community in face of the problems of commercial society
What were Mary Wollstonecraft's main ideas? -women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be because of lack of education -suggests that both men and women should be educated -advocates revolution when necessary
What are philosophes? philosophers and thinkers of the Enlightenment who believed that reason could be applied to all aspects of life
Why were a great deal of philosophes getting into trouble facing jail or exile? for criticizing the monarchy
How did the Enlightenment spread? salons and the encyclopedia
What were salons? parties for educated people where philosophes spoke
Who made the encyclopedia? Diderot
What was the encyclopedia useful for? it tells about things going on around them
What were the 1600s and 1700s dominated by? the baroque style of music
What is baroque characterized by? grand, ornate, heavy, big design
What does baroque refer to? music, painting, and literature of this period also evident in the palace of Versailles
What musicians is baroque music associated with? Johann Sebastian Bach and George Fredrich Handel of England
What instruments is baroque music mostly written for? pipe organ and harpsichord
What musicians is Neoclassical/classical music associated with? Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven
What instruments is Neoclassical/classical music mostly used with? piano, clarinet, orchestras, flutes, harps, etc
What are enlightened despots? enlightened absolute rulers
What did Fredrich the Great do? believed in religious freedom, reduced censorship, believed serfdom is wrong, eliminated certain punishments
Who was Catherine the Great? ruler of Russia from 1762-1796
What did Catherine the Great do? -reviewed Russia's laws instituted some reforms based on Montesquieu -did little to improve the lives of peasants -expanded empire into Poland
What was the Declaration of Independence influenced by? John Locke's ideas of natural rights and overthrowing a corrupt government
What was the US Constitution influenced by? Montesquieu's ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances
What was the Bill of Rights influenced by? John Locke's ideas of natural rights, Voltaire's ideas about freedom of speech and church of state
What were some new technologies of the Enlightenment? -all weather roads -improvement in ship design -new farm tools
What are all the aspects of life? -reason -nature -happiness -progress -liberty
What are checks and balances? used to keep the government from getting too powerful i one branch
Created by: rachelme