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AP Human Geo Vocab

chapter 1 vocabuary

abiotic composed of nonliving or inorganic matter
atmosphere the thin layer of gases surrounding earth
biosphere all living organisms on earth, including plants and animals, as well as microorganisms
cartography the science of making maps
concentration the spread of something over a given area
connections relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
contagious diffusion the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
cultural ecology geographic approach the emphasizes human- environment relationships
cultural landscape fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
culture the body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition
density the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
diffusion the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
distance decay the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its orgin
distribution the arrangement of something across Earth's surface
environmental determinism a 19 + early 20- century approach to the study of geography with argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
expansion diffusion the spread of a feature or ted among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
formal region( or uniform or homogeneous region) an area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region (or nodal region) an area organized around a node or focal point
geographic information system (GIS) a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
global positioning system (GPS) a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking station, and receivers
globalization actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
greenwich mean time (GMT) the time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0* longitude
hearth the tegion from which innovation ideas originate
hierarchical diffusion the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
international date line an arc that for the most part follows 180* longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. when you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hrs. when you go west (toward asi
lithosphere earth's crust and a portion of upper mantle directly below the crust
latitude the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0*)
location the position of anything on Earth's surface
longitude the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
map a two- dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it
mental map a representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
meridian an arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
parallel a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
pattern the geometric or regular arrangement of something in study of an area
map scale the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on earth's surface
place a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
polder land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area
possibilism the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
prime meridian the meridian, designed as 0* longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
network a chain of communication that connects places
projection the system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
region an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
regional (or cultural landscape) studies an approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
relocation diffusion the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
remote sensing the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long- distance methods
resource a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
scale generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole; specifically, the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
nonrenewable resource something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
site they physical character of a place
situation the location of a place relative to another
space the physical gap or interval between two objects
space- time compression the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
stimulus diffusion the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
toponym the name given to a portion of Earth's surface
preservation the maintenance of resources in their present condition with as little human impact as possible
transnational corporation a company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
uneven development the increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
vernacular region (or perceptual region) an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
biotic composed of living organisms
cartography the science of making maps
climate the long term average of weather condition at a particular location
conservation the sustainable management of a natural resource
ecology the scientific study of organisms
ecosystem a group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interact
geographic information science (GIScience) the development and analysis of data about earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
housing bubble a rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value
hydrosphere all of the water on and near earth's surface
renewable resource something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans
sustainability the use of earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future
Created by: campbellm19
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