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World History

Final Review Quarter 1 Chapter 7&8 Rome and The Byzantine Empire

Explain the Punic Wars. Who fought in the Punic Wars? How many wars? What were the long term effects of the wars?
Who were the Patricians? Plebeians? Patricians=Landowning elite. Upperclass Plebeians=working class/poor/peasant farmers
What were the struggles with the social order? Plebeians did not have political and social equality with Patricians. Plebs and patricians couldn’t marry and only patricians were allowed to be elected to public office.
How did the Twelve Tables help provide stable rights between Patricians and Plebeians? All Roman citizens were protected by the civil laws existing in the 12 tables
Who were the Roman Senate? Tribunes? Senate=patricians Tribune=plebeian
What were the six reforms made by Julius Caesar?
How were Caesar’s reforms continued by Augustus? What else did Augustus do to strengthen the Empire?
Describe the Pax Romana under the five good emperors.
Identify the Gracchus Brothers. What was their goal? Tiberius&Gaius Gracchus were brothers who wanted the return small farmers. They advocated for land reforms to take land from wealthy patricians & return it to small farmers. Each was murdered in addition to 300 of their followers on 2 separate occasions.
Explain the rise of Christianity throughout Rome.
How did the Church provide stability for the Western side of the Roman Empire? Once Rome “fell” there was no central authority for the west and no unifying culture. Christianity unified the different groups of people living there once they were no longer Roman.
Who was Diocletian and how did he try to save the empire? Emperor who divided the empire in half
What were the economic and social policies of both Diocletian and Constantine?
Who were the zealots? Jews who wanted a violent upheaval of Rome, once Judea became a Roman province
Who was Charlemagne and how did he unite Germans, Christians, and Romans? A Frankish king, who was crowned emperor of Rome by the pope. Created the Carolingian empire
What was the Edict of Milan? Decreed by the emperor Constantine, it stated that Rome would tolerate Christianity
Why did Constantine create Constantinople? He wanted to “save” the Roman Empire and this was his way to do it; he saw the trading potential of Constantinople in its location between East and West.
What was the difference between Roman law and Germanic Law? Under Roman law, offences were against the state and there was a system of justice in place to provide consequences. Under Germanic law, offences were against people and justice was in/ at the hands of the family, creating blood feuds.
What was the Body of Civil Law? A code created by Justinian in the Byzantine Empire.
Explain Bread and Circuses IT was the emperor’s job to provide food and entertainment to the people of his empire
What issues did the Byzantine Empire face?
Explain the role of mercenaries.
Who were the wealthy land owners in Rome? patricians
What was the Church hierarchy across the western side of Rome?
Who was Justinian and what did he do in an attempt to save the Byzantine Empire?
What is a government ruled by the people? Hint-NOT Democracy. Republic
Why were non-Roman religions seen as a threat to the Roman Empire?
Explain why the Catholic Church did not have as much influence on the Eastern side in comparison to the Western side. A patriarch was appointed by the emperor
Why was Constantinople so significant?
Explain the first triumvirate. Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey. Rule of three.
Explain the second triumvirate (Part 1 of 2) The Second Triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus. The three men were unable to divide the large Roman Empire amongst each other, however. Lepidus was the first to be sent away and return to ordinary life;
Explain the second triumvirate (Part 2 of 2) a large battle was fought in Greece (the Battle of Actium) in which Octavian vied Antony & Cleopatra (from Egypt) for control of the empire. Octavian won, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee to Egypt where they eventually committed suicide.
Describe the government during times of the Roman Republic. (Part 1 of 2) The government during the Roman Republic was the formation of a legal system and the election of representatives voted on by a select group of citizens.
Describe the government during times of the Roman Republic.(Part 2 of 2) The basic legal code was the Twelve Tables which established civil laws to be followed by both patricians and plebeians. The Roman Senate was the representative body comprised of 300 patricians, or wealthy landholding elite.
Explain the military system in Rome and how it changed over time. (Part 1 of 2) During the republic the first soldiers were less wealthy landowners made up the army, loyal to Rome, later urban and rural poor loyal to a general who promised them land.
Explain the military system in Rome and how it changed over time. (Part 2 of 2) Under Augustus legions of 5-6,000 men made up a unit. At the end of the empire, lack of Roman soldiers was dealt with by hiring Germanic mercenaries.
Describe the role of the Roman state religion. (Part 1 of 2) The Roman state religion was paganism—a polytheistic religion that attempted to provide an explanation for why things happened. Although paganism was the state religion, Romans tended to accept other religious practice and cultures...
Describe the role of the Roman state religion. (Part 2 of 2) ... so that conquered peoples would ally themselves with the empire rather than be at odds. This practice continued unless a culture or religion threatened the power of the Roman Empire; in this case, a religion would not be tolerated.
Created by: PLHSWorld1