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World History

Final Review Quarter 1 Chapter 3&4 Persia & Ancient Greece

QuestionAnswer
How did geography influence the development of Ancient Greece? Greece’s mountains caused people to settle in low-lying valleys and become isolated and independent city-states.
How did geography facilitate trade throughout Ancient Greece? Surrounded by water, Greeks became seagoing traders
What is a polis? An early Greek city-state consisting of a city or town and its surrounding people & countryside
What is the agora? An open area that served as a gathering place & as a market for people in Greece.
Who was Homer and what did he write? What did his writings teach? The playwright wrote the first great epic poems, such as the Odyssey and Iliad; His works taught values of courage and honor
Explain how tyrants gained power throughout Greece. Tyrants seized power by force from the aristocrats, gained support from the newly rich and the poor, and maintained power by using hired soldiers and fighting tactics
Who was Homer and what did he write? What did his writings teach? The playwright wrote the first great epic poems, such as the Odyssey and Iliad; His works taught values of courage and honor
Explain how tyrants gained power throughout Greece. Tyrants seized power by force from the aristocrats, gained support from the newly rich and the poor, and maintained power by using hired soldiers and fighting tactics
Describe the Age of Pericles. Who he was, what he did, what changed across Athens. (Part 1 of 2) The period between 461 B.C. and 429 B.C, when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power, marks the Age of Pericles.
Describe the Age of Pericles. Who he was, what he did, what changed across Athens. (Part 1 of 2) Pericles was a dominant political figure in Athens and he expanded its empire abroad while upholding democracy in Athens, which became the center for Greek culture and brilliance.
Describe the Peloponnesian Wars. Athens & Sparta became rivaling city-states after combined effort to defeat the Persians; Sparta feared Athens growing power. Disputes led to Peloponnesian War & a crushing defeat for Athenians in 405 B.C., marking the end of the Classical Age of Greece.
How did Athens develop itself as a leading city-state for trade? Economy in Athens depended upon farming&trade. Location was perfect for trading since most of its land was not suitable for farming, trading was important. It imported 50-80% of its grain & a port near the city became a leading trading center at the time.
Who were sophists and what did they teach? The Sophists were a group of traveling teachers in ancient Greece who rejected theories. They argued it was simply beyond the reach of humans to understand the universe. They taught the importance of rhetoric (speech) and the art of persuasion.
Describe the importance of Greek philosophy. Know the Philosophers and what they taught. - SOCRATES Socrates: the individual is the source of knowledge through reason; Key philosophers and ideas from Greece have greatly shaped western philosophical traditions and thought.
Describe the importance of Greek philosophy. Know the Philosophers and what they taught. - PLATO Plato: the world is composed of higher Forms. Key philosophers and ideas from Greece have greatly shaped western philosophical traditions and thought.
Describe the importance of Greek philosophy. Know the Philosophers and what they taught. - ARISTOTLE Aristotle: the only way to understand the world is through observation. Key philosophers and ideas from Greece have greatly shaped western philosophical traditions and thought.
Who was Herodotus? He is an author who wrote “History of the Persian Wars”, which is often seen as the first real history in the Western civilization. Herodotus was a master storyteller who saw war and politics as being caused by Greek gods.
Explain the rise of Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great was a Macedonian military leader who built a powerful army who united Greece and took revenge on the Persian Empire.
How did Alexander the Great influence Greek expansion? Alexander spread Greek language, architecture, literature, art, and religious diversity throughout parts of Asia and North Africa.
Explain Hellenistic culture. Greek culture blended with aspects of Eastern culture and became a new Hellenistic culture.
What is an oligarchy? “the rule of the few”; a form of government in which a select group of people have control.
Explain the differences between Athens and Sparta. Athens&Sparta experienced many differences. Athens’ geography forced it to be a major trading center to feed its people. Sparta had more land for farming. While the arts, literature,education were valued by Athenian men, Spartan men valued war&strength.
Explain the Persian Wars and include the major battles and their outcomes. Athens and Sparta were faced with a common enemy—a Persian invasion led by Xerxes, decided to put aside their differences and unite. Xerxes ultimately failed to capture Greece.
Explain the results of the Persian Wars. Greece became convinced of its own uniqueness. Formation of the Delian League. Athens becomes powerful leader of city-states.
Describe the development of Persia. Cyrus- Called the “Law Giver”. Very just and fair. Darius-expanded roads and trade and created the Royal Road System.
Define and describe Zoroastrianism. Religion based on good vs. evil. Prophet Zoroaster taught humans have free will. Ahuramazda-forces of good. Ahirman-forces of evil
How were communication and trade expanded upon throughout the Persian Empire? The Royal Road
How was the Persian government strengthened by Darius? He divided the empire into Satripies.
What was unique to the Persians considering the time period and other civilizations? Belief in monotheism.
Describe the Age of Pericles. Who he was, what he did, what changed across Athens. (Part 1 of 2) The period between 461 B.C. and 429 B.C, when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power, marks the Age of Pericles.
Describe the Age of Pericles. Who he was, what he did, what changed across Athens. (Part 2 of 2) Pericles was a dominant political figure in Athens and he expanded its empire abroad while upholding democracy in Athens, which became the center for Greek culture and brilliance.
Created by: PLHSWorld1