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Non Rubenstein Vocab
|the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations
|the wet deposition of acids upon Earth created by the natural cleansing prosperities of the atmosphere.
|a representation of the population based on its composition according to age and sex
|the negative economic effects of urbanization and the local concentration of industry
|cost advantages that accrue to individual firms because of their location among functionally related activities
|referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there.
|process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing, and retai
|activities such as maintenance, repair, security, and haulage services that serve a variety of industries.
|Animistic perspective on nature
|the view that natural phenomena-both animate and inanimate possess an indwelling spirit or consciousness
|a map projection on which compass directions are correct only from one central point
|population of individuals born between the years 1946 and 1964
|the negative impacts on a region (or regions) of the economic growth of some other region
|economic activities that provide income from sales to customers beyond city limits
|a style of urban design that sought to combine the best elements of all of the classic architectural styles.
|technique that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify products, to improve plants and animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
|Buddhist perspective on nature
|the view that nothing exists in and of itself and everything is part of natural, complex, and dynamic totality of mutuality and interdependence.
|the maximum number of users that can be sustained, over the long term, by a given set of natural resources.
|the original, core jurisdictions of metropolitan areas.
|Central place theory
|a theory that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities as a function of people’s shopping behavior.
|the functional dominance of cities within and urban system
|forces that divide or tend to pull the state apart.
|application of synthetic fertilizers to the soil- and herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides to crops- in order to enhance yields.
|City Beautiful movement
|attempt to remake cities in ways that would reflect the higher values of society, using neoclassical architecture, grandiose street plans, parks, and inspirational monuments and statues.
|a flaked, bifaced projectile whose length is more than twice its width
|Cognitive images (mental maps)
|psychological representations of locations that are made up from people’s individual ideas and impressions of these locations
|space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions
|a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience.
|city that was deliberately established or developed as an administrative or commercial center by colonial or imperial powers
|interaction between the Old World, originating with the voyages of Columbus, and the New World
|network of labor and production processes beginning with the extraction or production of raw materials and ending with the delivery of a finished commodity.
|principle whereby places and regions specialize in activities for which they have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions- or for which they have the least disadvantage.
|a group of states united for a common purpose
|a map projection on which compass bearings are rendered accurately
|companies that have diversified into various economic activities, usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions
|the territorial and residential clustering of specific groups of subgroups of people
|the view that natural resources should be used wisely, and that society’s effects on the natural world should represent stewardship and not exploitation
|regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economics
|an intellectual and esthetic openness toward divergent experiences, images, and products from different cultures.
|the withdrawal of investments from activities (and regions) that yield low rates of profit, in order to reinvest in new activities (and new places)
|the complex strategies of human groups employ to live successfully as part of a natural system
|combination of traits characteristic of a particular group
|how space, place, and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space, place, and landscape.
|the geographic origins or sources of innovations, ideas, or ideologies.
|a characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group and a natural environment
|an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization, especially from the penetrating influence of US culture
|the areas within which a particular cultural system prevails.
|a collection of interacting elements that taken together shape a group’s collective identity.
|a single aspect of the complex of routine practices that constitute a particular cultural group
|a spiral build up of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the development of external economics, agglomeration effects, and localization economies.
|Cycle of poverty
|transmission of poverty and deprivation from one generation to another through a combination of domestic circumstances and local, neighborhood conditions.
|the acquisition, by colonized peoples, of control over their own territory
|approach to nature revolving around two key components egalitarianism
|the removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting
|a relative decline in industrial employment in core regions
|a system in which public policies and officials are directly chosen by popular vote
|phenomenon of near genocide of native populations
|landscapes that have experienced abandonment, misuse, disinvestment, or vandalism
|a spatial dispersion of a previously homogeneous group
|inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology, particularly the Internet
|Division of labor
|the specialization of different people, regions, or countries in particular kinds of economic activities
|if one country in a region chose or was forced to accept a communist political and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistibility susceptible to falling to communism
|the juxtaposition in geographic space of the formal and informal sectors of the economy
|communist and noncommunist countries, respectively
|the view that patriarchal ideology is at the center of our present environmental malaise
|introduction of exotic plants and animals into new ecosystems
|population movement caused by the degradation of land and essential natural resources
|Economies of scale
|cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output
|a community of different species interacting with each other and with the larger physical environment that surrounds it
|a philosophical perspective on nature that prescribes moral principles as guidance for our treatment of it
|movement reflecting a growing political consciousness, largely among the world’s poor, that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighborhoods
|Equal-area (equivalent) projection
|a map projection that portrays areas on the earth’s surface in their true proportions
|a map projection that allows distance to be represented as accurately as possible
|the attitude that one’s own race and culture are superior to others’
|the scientific study of the formation and evolution of human customs and beliefs
|Export-processing zones (EPZs)
|small areas within which especially favorable investment and trading conditions are created by governments in order to attract export-oriented industries
|regions of the world not yet absorbed into the modern world-system
|cost savings that result from circumstances beyond a firm’s own organization and methods of production
|the financial failure and eventual foreclosure of thousands of family farms across the U.S. Midwest
|people, places, and regions directly involved, as producers and consumers, in transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption, and international news and entertainment
|increasing limitations on city revenues, combined with increasing demands for expenditure
|five central and connected sectors (inputs, production, product processing, distribution, and consumption) with four contextual elements acting as external mediating forces (the State, international trade, the physical environment, and credit, and financ
|adding value to agricultural products through a range of treatments- such as processing, canning, refining, packing, and packaging- that occur off the farm and before they reach the market
|specific set of links that exists among food production and consumption and capital investment and accumulation opportunities
|Foreign direct investment
|the total of overseas business investments made by private companies
|Friction of distance
|the deterrent of inhibiting effect of distance on human activity
|a city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation
|the social differences between men and women rather than the anatomical differences that are related to sex
|Genre de vie
|a functionally organized way of life that is seen to be characteristic of a particular culture group
|practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations
|uses census data and commercial data (such as sales data and property records) about the populations of small districts in creating profiles of those populations for market research
|the capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions.
|Geographical path dependence
|the historical relationship between the present activities associated with a place and the past experiences of that place
|the stat’s power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations
|the practice of redistricting for partisan purposes
|Global Positioning System
|a system of satellites which orbit the earth on precisely predictable path, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information
|a system of food production increasingly dependent upon an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization
|the total number of migrants moving into and out of a place, country, or region
|Gross National Product (GNP)
|similar to GDP, but also includes the value of income from abroad
|economic activities that are deliberately organized around one or more high-growth industries.
|geographic settings where new practices have developed, and from which they have subsequently spread
|domination over the world economy, exercised by one national state in a particular historical epoch through a combination of economic, military, financial, and cultural means.
|the sphere of economic influence of a town or city
|the geography of the past
|the study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments
|places the individual- especially individual values, meaning systems, intentions, and conscious acts- at the center of analysis
|Hunting and gathering
|activities whereby people feed themselves through killing wild animals and fish and gathering fruits, roots, nuts, and other edible plants to sustain themselves.
|the process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that formerly were bought from foreign producers
|economic activities that take place beyond official record, not subject to formalized systems ofregulation or remuneration
|Infrastructure (or fixed social capital)
|the underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity
|the critical importance of an early start in economic development; a special case of external economies
|group that includes two or more states seeking political and/or economic cooperation with each other
|practice of mixing different seeds and seedlings in the same swidden
|Invasion and succession
|a process of neighborhood change whereby one social or ethnic group succeeds another
|Islamic perspective on nature
|the view that the heavens and Earth were made for human purposes
|a hypothetical, uniform plain
|Judeo-Christian perspective on nature
|the view that nature was created by God and is subject to God in the same way that a child is subject to parents
|Landscape as text
|the ideas that landscapes can be read and written by groups and individuals
|Law of diminishing returns
|the tendency for productivity to decline, after a certain point, with the continued application of capital and/or labor to a given resource base.
|periods of international power established by individual states though economic, political, and military competition
|cost savings that accrue to particular industries as a result of clustering together at a specific location
|a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on Earth’s surface
|the assumption tat the world is, and should be, shaped mainly by men, for men
|the replacement of human farm labor with machines
|very large city characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its national economy
|members of the population 15 to 64 years of age who are considered economically active and productive
|a society with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy
|population subgroups that are seen –or that see themselves- as somehow different from the general population
|the idea that buildings and cities should be designed and run like machines
|a forward-looking view of the world that emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty, and progress
|a group of people often sharing common elements of culture such as religion or language, or history of political identity
|difference between the CDR and CBR, which is the deficit of births relative to deaths
|a social creation as well as the physical universe that includes human beings
|economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other area or peoples
|economic activities that serve a city’s own population
|the differentiation made between the colonizing states of the Northern Hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the Southern Hemisphere
|ratio between the total population and the amount of land under cultivation in a given unit of area
|Offshore financial centers
|islands or micro-states that have become a specialized node in the geography of worldwide financial flows.
|members of the population 65 years of age and older who are considered beyond their economically active and productive years
|Ordinary landscapes (vernacular landscapes)
|the everyday landscapes that people create in the course of their lives
|condition in which cities grow more rapidly than the jobs and housing they can sustain
|the period when chipped-stone tools first began to be used
|subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing
|regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity
|approach to cultural geography that studies human-environment relations thought the relationships of patterns of resource use to political and economic
|Postmodern urban design
|style characterized by a diversity of architectural styles and elements, often combined in the same building or project
|a view of the world that emphasizes an openness to a range of perspectives in social inquiry, artistic expression, and political empowerment.
|an approach to nature advocating that certain habitats, species, and resources should remain off-limits tohuman use, regardless of whether the use maintains or depletes the resource in question
|condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relationto the second- and third-largest cities in that system
|economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind
|the study of social and cultural meanings that people give to personal space
|economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information
|the maximum distance that consumers will normally travel to obtain a particular product or service
|a statistical regularity in city-size distributions of cities and regions
|the process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas
|the defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries
|the study of the ways in which combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
|a feeling of collective identity based on a population’s politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
|belief system and a set of practices that recognize the existence of a power higher than humans
|Rites of passage
|the ceremonial acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in human life such as birth, menstruation, and other markers of adulthood such as marriage.
|philosophy that emphasizes interdependence and relatedness between humans and nature
|an area recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention as a site of special religious experiences or events
|economic activities that process, transform, fabricate, or assemble the raw material derived from primary activities, or that reassemble, refinish, or package manufactured goods.
|extreme devotion to local interests and customs
|the spatial separation of specific population subgroups within a wider population
|the practice of writing and reading signs
|regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated
|by core regions
|Sense of place
|feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and to the symbolism that they attach to it
|ser of practices and identities that a given culture considers related to each other and to those things it considers sexual acts and desires
|city that is seen as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and culturallife.
|the buildup of sand and clay in a natural or artificial waterway
|people, places, and regions whose participation in transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption, ad international news and entertainment is limited
|sum of the inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced by human beings across particularplaces and times
|the way that things spread thought space and over time
|the fairness of the distribution of society’s burdens and benefits, taking in to account spatial variationsin people’s needs and in their contribution to the production of wealth and social well-being
|the positive impacts on a region (or regions) of the economic growth of some other region
|growths of population along the fringes of large metropolitan areas
|collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature; such organizations diminish, to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favor of the group interests of the membership
|representations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public
|Taoist perspective on nature
|the view that nature should be values for its own sake, not for how it might be exploited
|physical objects or artifacts, activities or processes, and knowledge or know-how
|clusters interrelated energy, transportation, and production technologies that dominate economic activity for several decades at a time
|a system of government formally structured by area, not by social groups
|the specific attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific location or territory
|the delimited area over which a states exercises control and which is recognized by other states
|the rate at which places move closer together in travel or communication time or costs
|the connections between, or connectivity of, particular places that have become significant to individuals
|the emotions and meanings associated with particular places that have become significant to individuals
|a philosophy in which a person attempts to rise above nature and the limitations of the body to the point where the spirit dominates the flesh
|when people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours
|the social and demographic composition of city districts and neighborhoods
|the physical structure and organization of cities
|an interdependence set of urban settlements within a specified region
|the ways of life, attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior fostered by urban settlements
|external economies that accrue to producers because of the packages of infrastructure,ancillary activities, labor, and markets typically associated with urban settings
|the usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group
|Virgin soil epidemics
|conditions in which the population at risk has no natural immunity or previous exposure to disease within the lifetime of the oldest member of the group
|computer-assisted representation of spatial data, often involving three-dimensional images andinnovative perspectives, in order to reveal spatial patterns and relationships more effectively
|information about births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and the incidence of certain infectious diseases.
|a city in which a disproportionate part of the world’s most important business is conducted
|minisystems that have been absorbed into common political system while retaining their fundamentalcultural differences
|an interdependence system of countries linked by economic and political competition
|members of the population who are less than 15 years of age and generally considered to be too young to be fully active in the labor force
|Zone in transition
|area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD