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Chapter 11

Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase

QuestionAnswer
Who is Romulus and who is Remus? Where and when were they found? Legendary twins rescued by a she-wolf (Rome 753 B.C.E.)
When did the Etruscans dominate Italy? Eighth to fifth centuries B.C.E.
Where was the kingdom of Rome? On the TIber River
What happened to the last Etruscan king? Rome nobility overthrew the last king in 509 B.C.E.
What two consuls were included in the Republican constitution? Civil and military
How were the consuls elected? By an assembly dominated by the patricians
Who advised the consuls and confirmed major decisions? The senate
What sis the Patricians grant the plebeians? They granted them the tribunes
What kind of power did the tribunes have? To intervene and veto decisions
Plebeians did what in the early third century? Dominated Roman politics
What did Rome do in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.? Consolidated its position in Italy
Who did Rome have conflict with? With Carthage (Punic Wars) and Hellenistic realms
Rome's power became superior where? Eastern and western Mediterranean.
What did the Gracchi brothers do? What happened to them? They supported land redistribution and they were both assassinated
Who did military commanders recruit? Rural and urban, poor, intensely loyal armies
Who is Gaius Marius? General who advocated land redistribution
Who supported general Lucius Cornelius Sulla? Conservative aristocratic class
What did Octovian do? He brought civil conflict to an end
Senate bestowed what title to whom and when? Senate bestowed the title "Augustus" to Octavian in 27 B.C.E.
The monarchy was disguised as what? As a republic
What did Augustus do? He created his own army
What began to take root? The imperial institutions
Where did the Roman Empire expand? Into the Mediterranean basin, western Europe and down the Nile to Kush
What happened for two and a half centuries? Pax romana, Roman Peace
Technology... Roman roads; postal system
Roman Law Tradition: 12 tables (450 B.C.E.)
What did owners of latifundia focus on? Specialized production for export
What linked ports of the Mediterranean? Sea lanes
Who helped keep the seas pirate free? The Roman navy
What did the Mediterranean become? The Roman lake
What fueled urban development? Wealth of the city
More technology & art.. Statues, pools, fountains, arches, temples and stadiums
What did they use as construction material? Concrete (for the first time)
What were the attractions? Baths, pools, gymnasia, circuses, stadiums and ampitheaters
Pater familias: Oldest male of the family ruled
What role did the women play? -They had considerable influence within their families -Supervised family business and wealthy estates
What did the newly rich classes build? Palatial houses and they also threw lavish banquets
At what level did the cultivators and urban masses live at? At subsistence level
What did the poor classes become in Rome and other cities? They became a serious problem
How much of the population were slaves? 1/3 of the population
When was Spartacus' uprising? In 73 B.C.E.
Roman deities: Gods, goddesses and household gods
Stoicism: Greek influence; Appealed to Roman intellectuals
Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.) Persuasive orator and writer on Stoicism
What did religions of salvation do? They gave sense of purposed and promised an afterlife
What was one purpose of the Roman roads? Religious highways in order to spread religion
Mithraism: Popular with Roman soldiers--men only
What cult became very popular? Isis
State cults were considered as blasphemy by who? Monotheistic Jews
Doctrines.. The Essenes, sect of Judaism; Dead Sea Scrolls
Jesus of Nazareth -Jewish teacher who taught devotion to God and love for human beings -Attracted crowds through his wisdom and miraculous powers -Became "Christ: or the "anointed one"
What alarmed the Romans? The teaching that "the kingdom of God is at hand"
What happened in early 30s B.C.E.? Crucifixion
Holy book of Christianity: The New Testament & The Old Testemant
Paul of Taurus: Principle figure in spread of Christianity
Rapid growth of Christianity: -Strong appeal to lower classes, urban population and women -Most influential faith in the Mediterranean by the third century B.C.E.
Created by: alexis3102