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foundation science

Gross anatomy Surface, radiologic, endoscopic
Comparative anatomy between species
Microscopic anatomy histology, micro-organisation of tissues
Developmental anatomy embryology, development of body
Neuroanatomy structure of nervous system; brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
Surface anatomy relationship of surfaces features and internal parts
Radiologic anatomy outlines of bones and other organs, using x-rays and other imaging modalities
Endoscopic anatomy internal tubes and cavities viewed by laparoscopy or arthroscopy
Herophilus of Alexandria 330BC father of anatomy
Erasistratus 300BC student of Herophilus
Galen Teachings dominated medicine from medieval to renaissance
Mondino de Luzzi Reviver of anatomy, ignored galenic errors
Versalius Organiser of anatomy, identified galenic errors
William Harvey demonstrated purposeful blood flow
William and John Hunter major contributors to anatomy
Regional based anatomy Head and neck Trunk - back, thorax, abdomen, pelvis Upper limb - shoulder, arm, forearm, hand Lower limb - gluteal region, thigh, leg
Systems based anatomy Integumentary, muscular and skeletal (articular), nervous, endocrine, CV, lymphatic, resp, GI, urinary, reproductive
Anatomical position Face forward, body upright, arms hanging at sides, palms forward, feet together
Superior Inferior
left right
proximal distal
midline medial
anterior ventral
posterior dorsal
prone face down
supine face up
sagittal plane divide left and right, longitudinally
coronal plane divide front and back, anterior/posterior
transverse plane divide horizontally, superior/inferior, upper/lower
medial closer to midline
lateral further from midline
proximal closer to trunk
distal further from trunk
cranial/head caudal/feet
superficial deep
superior inferior
external internal
abduction take away
adduction move toward
flexion extension
pronation supination
Created by: mymoose