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WH Ch. 14

WH Ch. 14 Terms

simony the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church
Gothic relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires
Urban II Pope who called for what he termed a "holy war"
Crusade one of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
Saladin Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader that took over Jerusalem
Richard the Lion-Hearted one of Europe's most three powerful monarchs; an English king; lead the Third Crusade
Reconquista the effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492
Inquisition a Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy-especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s
three-field system a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring rop, and left unplanted
guild a medieval association of people working at the same occupation, which controlled its members' wages and prices
Commercial Revolution the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries
burgher a medieval merchant-class town dweller
vernacular the everyday language of people in a region or country
Thomas Aquinas scholar who argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument
scholastics scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities
William the Conqueror duke of Normandy
Henry II English king who married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France
common law a unified body of law formed from rulings of England's royal judges that serves as the basis for law in many English-speaking countries today, including the United States
Magna Carta "Great Charter" - a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in AD 1215
parliament a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
Hugh Capet an undistinguished duke from the middle of France that succeeded Louis the Sluggard
Philip II one of the most powerful Capetians
Estates-General an assembly or representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France
Avignon city in Rome where the Pope moved
Great Schism a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome
John Wycliffe preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church
Jan Hus influenced by Wycliffe's writings; a professor in Bohemia who taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope
bubonic plague a deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people
Hundred Years' War war that Edward III launched that continued on and off from 1337 to 1453; a conflict in which England and France battled on French soil
Joan of Arc a teenage French peasant girl who felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors
Created by: mjnlewis