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Ch. 6

Migration to Mesoamerica Large wave of humans traveled from Siberia to Alaska around 13,000 B.C.E.
Early agriculture: beans, squashes, chilies; later, maize became the staple (5000 B.C.E.) Agricultural villages appeared after 3000 B.C.E. No large domesticated animals, no wheeled vehicles
Olmecs, the "rubber people," lived near the Gulf of Mexico (1200 B.C.E.) Elaborate complexes built The colossal human heads--possibly likenesses of rulers
Heirs of the Olmecs: the Maya The Maya lived in the highlands of Guatemala
Maya society and religion Kings, priests, and hereditary nobility at the top Merchants were from the ruling class; they served also as ambassadors
Maya writing was ideographic and syllabic; only four books survive Religious thought Popol Vuh, a Maya creation myth, taught that gods created humans out of maize and water Gods maintained agricultural cycles in exchange for honors and sacrifices
Heirs of the Olmecs: Teotihuacan Colossal pyramids of sun and moon High point between 400 and 600 C.E.; two hundred thousand inhabitants
Teotihuacan society Rulers and priests dominated society Two-thirds of the city inhabitants worked in fields during daytime
Early migration to Peru and Bolivia region By 12,000 B.C.E. hunting and gathering peoples reached South America
Early agriculture in South America Main crops: beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cotton Fishing supplemented agricultural harvests
The Chavín Cult, from about 900 to 300 B.C.E. Complexity of Andean society increases during Chavín Devised techniques of producing cotton textiles and fishing nets
Early Andean states: Mochica (300-700 C.E.) in northern Peru Irrigation, trade, military, no writing Artistic legacy: painting on pottery, ceramics
Early societies in Australia and New Guinea Human migrants arrived in Australia and New Guinea at least sixty thousand years ago
ustronesian peoples from southeast Asia were seafarers to New Guinea, 3000 B.C.E. Early agriculture in New Guinea: root crops The peopling of the Pacific Islands Austronesian migration to Polynesia Outrigger canoes enabled them to sail safely
Lapita Society from New Guinea to Tonga (1500-500 B.C.E.) Agricultural villages Pottery with geometric designs Networks of trade/communication: pottery, obsidian, shells, tools traded
13,000 B.C.E Human migration to North America from Siberia
8000–7000 B.C.E. Origins of agriculture in Mesoamerica
4000 B.C.E. Origins of maize cultivation in Mesoamerica
3000 B.C.E. Origins of agriculture in South America
1000–300 B.C.E. Chavín cult
200 B.C.E.–750 C.E. Teotihuacan society
300–1100 C.E. Maya society
300–700 C.E. Mochica society
60,000 B.C.E. Human migration to Australia and New Guinea
3000 B.C.E. Origins of agriculture in New Guinea
3000 B.C.E. Austronesian migrations to New Guinea
The Olmec Existed from 1500 BCE to 400 BCE; a Mesoamerican civilization that created jade art; they lived in the Tuxtlas Mountains of the West to the Contalpa in Eastern Mexico; the civilization was named after rubber which they used.
The Maya Existed in 3 different time periods: Pre-Classic (2000 BCE to 250 CE), Classic (250 CE to 900 CE), and Post-Classic (900 CE to 1500 CE); they lived in Eastern 1/3 of Mesoamerica and made tall step pyramids and a mathematics system based on the number 20.
The Teotihuacan Existed from 500 BCE to 750 CE; they lived in the highlands of Southeast Mexico; they built the largest pyramid of Mesoamerica called Pyramid of the Sun in 100 CE.
The Mochica Existed from 100 CE to 800 CE; they lived in the river valleys and the dry coast of Peru; they built some of the largest pre-Columbian structures.
The Lapita Existed from 1500 BCE to 500 BCE in the South Pacific Islands, mainly New Caledonia; they domesticated pigs, dogs, and chickens; they buried the bodies of the dead separate from the skulls.
Olmec Political Olmec influence was spread by military force.
Olmec Interactions The first Olmec ceremonial center arose around 1200 BCE, in the town of San Lorenzo, and it was their capital for four hundred years.
Olmec Agriculture Olmec cultural traditions influence all other Mesoamerican complex societies, until the arrival of Europeans in the 1600's.
Olmec Technology build elaborate drainage systems to prevent flooding, some of which are still in use today.
Olmec Economy The largest of these sculptures would have required one thousand laborers.
Olmec Social Common subject regularly labored for the elite class, building elaborate drainage systems, and alters, but also improving the artistic decoration of the capitals.
Mayans Interactions The oldest of Olmec heirs were the Mayans, who's society occupied southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador.
Mayans Religious The Popol Vuh, a Maya creation myth taught that gods had created humans out of maize and water.
Mayans Agriculture system of water control deading to diminished harvests and demographic collapse, ecological problems caused by deforestation, the spread of disease, and natural disasters.
Mayans Technology transmitted knowledge of writing, astronomy, and math.
Mayans Economy Mayan cultivators raised cacao, corn, cotton.
Mayans Social Maya had a large ruling class of priests who maintained an elaborate calander
Mochica Interactions The Mochica state was based in the valley of the Moche River, from about 300 - 700 CE.
Mochica Agriculture Mocicha paintings survive on pottery. They depict individuals, deities, and every dayf life.
Teotihuacan Political There are no signs of military organization in Teotihuacan.
Teotihuacan Interactions Teotihuacan was the largest agricultural village by 500 BCE. It expanded rapidly after 200 BCE, and at the end of the millenium it's population reached fifty thousand.
Teotihuacan Agriculture By 100 CE, the most promient landmarks -- the Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon -- dominated the skyline
Teotihuacan Social Apart from priests and rulers, Teotihuacans's population included cultivators, artisans, and merchants
Created by: ErickRam2019