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Chapter 6

A study tool for The Americas and Oceania. (study table recommended)

QuestionAnswer
13000BCE Americas Human migration to North America from Siberia
8000-7000BCE Americas Origins of agriculture in Mesoamerica
4000BCE Americas Origins of maize cultivation in Mesoamerica
3000BCE Americas Origins of agriculture in South America
1200-100 Americas Olmec society
1000-300BCE Americas ChavĂ­n cult
200BCE-750CE Americas Teotihuacan society
300-1100CE Americas Maya society
300-700CE Americas Mochica society
60000BCE Oceania Human migration to Australia and New Guinea
3000BCE (2 things) Oceania Origins of agriculture in New Guinea Austronesian migrations to New Guinea
1500-500BCE Oceania Lapita society
1500BCE-700CE Oceania Austronesian migrations to Pacific islands
In early September of the year 683 C.E., a Maya man named Chan Bahlum... grasped a sharp obsidian knife and cut three deep slits into the skin of his penis. He inserted into each slit a strip of paper made from beaten tree bark so as to encourage a continuing flow of blood.
The bloodletting observances of September 683 C.E. were... political and religious rituals, acts of deep piety performed as Chan Bahlum presided over funeral services for his recently deceased father, Pacal, king of the Maya city of Palenque in the Yucatan peninsula.
Both sexes occasionally drew blood also from... the earlobes, lips, or cheeks, and they sometimes increased the flow by pulling long, thick cords through their wounds.
Maya Interactions with geography: According to Maya priests.... the gods had shed their blood to water the earth and nourish crops of maize, and they expected human beings to honor them by imitating their sacrifice.
Maya Religion: By spilling human blood the Maya..... hoped to please the gods and ensure that life-giving waters would bring bountiful harvests to their fields.
For thousands of years, temporary land bridges joined regions that both before and after the ice ages were separated by the seas which... allowed people to migrate to different regions.
There were ice bridges linked to Oceania and the Americas. From Siberia to Alaska and from Australia to New Guinea.
High sea levels did not prevent human groups from migrating to new lands but they.. sometimes made it difficult for peoples to maintain ties with others separated by large bodies of water
nd Oceania built societies that in some ways resembled those of the eastern hemisphere. Human communities independently discovered agriculture in several regions of North America and South America, and migrants... introduced cultivation to the inhabited Pacific islands as well.
The earliest human inhabitants of the Americas lived exclusively by... hunting and gathering.
(food) Some human communities relied on... fish and small game to supplement foods that they gathered.
(food) Others turned to.... agriculture, and they gave rise to the first complex societies in the Americas.
Mesoamerica/8000-7000BCE: Experimentation of (foods) the cultivation of beans, chili peppers, avocados, squashes, and gourds. By 4000 B.C.E. they had discovered the agricultural potential of maize, which soon became the staple food of the region. Later they added tomatoes to the crops they cultivated.
Agricul- tural villages appeared soon after 3000 B.C.E., and by 2000 B.C.E. agriculture had spread throughout Mesoamerica.
Olmecs Society: Social Classes? Permanent residents of the ceremonial centers included members of the ruling elite, priests, and a few artisans and craftsmen who tended to the needs of the ruling and priestly classes.
Olmec (tier 3) rubber people
The earliest heirs of the Olmecs were the Maya, who created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador.
cacao (tier 3) a large bean cultivated to make chocolate.
cacao was valuable so.. Maya used cacao beans as money.
How did Olmecan rulers show power? by building huge pyramids in their name
What does this tell us of their possible governmental organization? Heavily based on religion (Theology)
Meso-America= middle of America. It is the land that connects the continents: North America and South America
glyph a hieroglyphic character or symbol; a pictograph
What about any governmental policies for this society? No signs of military organization or conquest, most likely depended on their religion(Theocracy)
How do we know about the importance of religion? Wall carvings show how priests were the most important people, they built pyramids for their gods, and sacrifice
What is a mother culture? A mother culture is a term for an earlier people's culture that has great and widespread influence on some later cultures and people
They took over after the Maya The Teotihuacan Society.
What caused exposure to land bridges that linked Siberia with Alaska, and Australia with New Guinea? The low sea levels during ice ages
What happened during the time of the Chavin Cult? large temple complexes were built; carvings of wild animals were created; weavers produced cotton textiles; gold, silver, and copper jewelry was made.
What area did the Olmecs emerge in? They are from the Gulf of Mexico
How was power shown? They built pyramids in their name.
Created by: john3202