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Byzantine Empire

JAHKMLHS C8 The Byzantine Empire and Emerging Europe

procurator This man is an officer of the Roman empire entrusted with management of the financial affairs of a province and often having administrative powers as agent of the emperor
clergy These people are leaders in the church.
laity These people are regular church members.
Sadducees This was a Jewish sect that did not believe in the resurrection and probably favored cooperation with the Romans.
Pharisees This was Jewish sect believed that strict observance of religious laws would protect them from Roman influences.
Essenes This Jewish sect lived apart from society; shared goods in common, and waited for God to save Israel from oppression.
Zealots This Jewish sect called for a violent overthrow of the Romans and began a revolt against Rome in A.D. 66.
Jesus This man, who was also true God, knew that his mission was to complete God’s plan of salvation for mankind.
Peter This man, whose original name was Simon, was recognized as the leader of the apostles.
Paul This man, a highly educated Jewish Roman citizen, became the probably the greatest missionary of the Christian church.
Nero This man began the first persecution of Christians because he blamed them for the fire that had destroyed much of Rome.
Diocletian This man began the last great Roman persecution of Christians; however, he had to finally admit that Christianity was too strong to be blotted out by force.
Constantine This man became the first Christian emperor.
Edict of Milan This document issued by in 313 A.D. proclaimed official tolerance for the Christian religion.
Theodosius Under this man’s rule the Romans adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Marcus Aurelius This man, during whose reign a number of catastrophes struck Rome, was the last of the five good emperors.
Septimus Severus This man told his sons to “enrich the soldiers and ignore everyone else.”
Sassanid These were a Persian group that began to retake parts of the Persian empire from Rome.
Huns These were part of a fierce tribe of warriors from the steppes of Asia that moved into the Black Sea region and forced German tribes to move south.
Visigoths These peoples had been displaced, moved into Roman territory, became Roman allies, and finally revolted. In 410 A.D. they sacked Rome.
Adrianople This was a battle in 378 A. D. in which the Visigoths inflicted a crushing defeat on the Romans.
Vandals These were east Germanic tribesmen who invaded Rome’s empire in Spain and Africa and eventually even ravaged Rome in 455 A.D.
Odoacer This man of Germanic origin deposed the Roman emperor in 476 A.D.; and for many historians this becomes the end of the Roman empire in the west.
bishopric This term refers to a group of parishes headed by one leader and is also called a diocese.
monk This male person seeks to live a life cut off from ordinary human society in order to pursue an ideal of total dedication to God.
missionary This person seeks the conversion of non-Christian people.
Gregory I This man strengthened the power of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. He used the monastic movement to convert peoples of the Germanic tribes to Christianity.
monasticism This practice is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
nun This person is a woman withdraws from the world to dedicate herself to God.
abbess This person is the leader of a convent.
Franks This barbaric Germanic tribe moved in northern Gaul as Rome weakened and eventually helped the Romans and Visigoths defeat Attila at the Battle of the Cataluanian Plains.
Clovis This man was a strong military leader who around 500 A.D. became the first Germanic ruler to convert to Catholic Christianity.
wergild This term refers to the amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed; this is the value of a person in money.
ordeal Under Germanic law this term refers to a physical trial to determine innocence or guilt. The innocent one is protected by divine intervention.
Charlemagne This man, who ruled from 768 to 814 A.D., greatly expanded the Frankish kingdom and acquired the title “Emperor of the Romans.”
patriarch This man was the head of the Byzantine church and was appointed by the emperor.
Alexus I This man sought help from Pope Urban II for help in driving the Turks from Byzantine territory. The resulting flood of Crusaders would plague him for years to come.
Manzikert This was a battle at which the Turks defeated the Byzantine forces.
Seljuk Turks These peoples, who are regarded as the ancestors the modern Turks of today, established the Islamic period in Turkey and played a major role in defending the Islamic world against the Crusaders.
hippodrome This structure, a huge amphitheater holding between 40,000 and 60,000 spectators, was built primarily for chariot races.
republic This term refers to a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote.
patrician This social class of wealthy, powerful landowners, formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic.
plebeian This social class consisted of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers.
consul This chief executive officer of the Roman Republic was one of two elected each year to run the government and lead the army.
praetor This official in the Roman Republic was responsible for enforcing civil law.
Senate This group served for life and was to advise government officials. By the end of the third century their advice had the force of law.
centuriate assembly This group elected the chief officials and passed laws.
council of Plebs This group was a legislative assembly created in 494 B. C. to make laws relative to the concerns of the commoners. In 287 B.C. all laws enacted by this assembly were binding to all citizens, patricians included.
Twelve Tables This was Rome’s first code of laws and was adopted in 450 B.C.
First Punic War In this war the Romans are able to take Sicily away from the Carthaginians.
Second Punic War The Carthaginians invade Italy; and when a number of southern Italian cities rebel against Roman rule, Rome seems on the brink of disaster.
Hannibal This man who had be taught to hate Romans from little on crossed the Alps with a large army and a number of war elephants to attempt to take the war to the Romans.
Battle of Cannae During the Second Punic War the Romans decided to meet the Carthaginian invasion head-on. In this battle as many as 40,000 Romans might have been killed
Scipio Africanus This Roman general led a Roman army to attack Carthage in the Second Punic War rather than facing the Carthaginian army in Italy.
Battle of Zama In this battle the Carthaginian army is crushed in 202 B.C.; Carthage has to give up Spain; and Carthage becomes a Roman province.
Fourth Macedonian War This war marked the end of tolerance toward the country enlarged by Philip.
Cato This Roman Senator constantly called for the destruction of Carthage.
triumvirate This is a government by three people with equal power.
dictator This man was appointed by the Senate for months or less to deal with an extraordinary situation.
imperator This man is the commander in chief of the army
Tiberius Gracchus This man, together with is brother, had the council of the plebs pass land-reform bills that called for the government to take back public land held by large landowners.
Julius Caesar This man was a member of the First Triumvirate; however, he became dictator in 47 B.C.; his actions helped to end the republic and begin the empire.
Augustus The Senate awarded this title to Octavian in 27 B.C.; the title means the revered one and had previously been reserved for the gods.
Octavian This man joined with two others to form the Second Triumvirate; defeats one of the other men of the Triumvirate at the Battle of Actium; and basically becomes the first Roman Emperor.
Lepidus This man who had been a good friend of Julius Caesar and who had helped Marc Antony keep things somewhat quiet in Rome after Julius Caesar’s assassination was a second rate member of the Second Triumvirate.
Marc Antony This man fell deeply in love with the Egyptian queen CleopatraVII and then saw his army and navy smashed at the Battle of Actium.
Pompey This man was a member of the First Triumvirate who was given a command in Spain. He also led the army against Caesar as Caesar marched on Rome and began a civil war.
Crassus This man was a member of the First Triumvirate and was given command of Syria. He was killed in battle in 53 B. C. leaving only 2 to rule Rome.
Marius This Roman general became consul in 107 B. C. He created a new system of military recruitment in which recruits were promised land for service.
Sulla This Roman general set the example of using an army to seize power.
Nero This emperor ruled when Paul was brought to Rome. During his reign many Christians were arrested and thrown to the wild beasts in the circus, crucified, or as 'lighting' in Nero's gardens, while Nero mingled among the watching crowds.
Trajan Trajan
Hadrian This emperor withdrew forces from Mesopotamia and built a 74-mile wall across northern Britain to keep out the Picts and the Scots.
Cincinnatus This man, a simple farmer, was chosen as dictator to save Rome from attack. He led his army to victory, resigned as dictator, and returned to his farm.
Circus Maximus This was a chariot racetrack in Rome first constructed in the 6th century B.C. . The Circus was also used for other public events such as the Roman Games and gladiator fights.
insulae These Roman apartment blocks, constructed of concrete walls with wooden beam floors, were poorly built and often collapsed.
Latifundia These were the large landed estates which dominated farming in southern and central Italy.
Spartacus In 73 B.C. this slave led a revolt in southern Italy and defeated several Roman armies before being trapped and killed.
Varus This Roman general led three Roman legions in an attempt to conquer Germany; however, the Romans were massacred by the Germanic warriors.
paterfamilias This was the dominant male head of the household.
Virgil This man who was the most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age wrote the Aeneid.
Horace This man who was a sophisticated writer in the Augustan Age pointed out some of the follies and vices of his age in the Satires.
Livy This historian produced The Early History of Rome in which he traced Roman history to 9 B.C.
Pax Romana This was a period of almost 200 years of peace and prosperity in Rome.
Created by: jim.haferman