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Chapter 11

Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase

who are Romulus and Remus? legendary twins who founded Rome in 753 B.C.E.
what did the Etruscans do? dominated Italy eighth to fifth centuries B.C.E.
where was the kingdom of rome located? On the Tiber River
What did the Republican constitution include? Councils and military
council & senate: represented the interests of the patricians
Who were the tribunes? officials chosen to protect plebeians interests, and they dominated Roman politics, early third century B.C.E.
who did Rome have conflict with? Carthage (Punic Wars) and Hellenistic realms
expansion of the republic: Rome had superior power in eastern and western Mediterranean
The Gracchi brothers supported land redistribution
who did Military commanders recruit? rural and urban poor--intensely loyal armies
who is Gaius Marius? general who advocated land redistribution
what did Imperial expansion and domestic problems cause? civil war, and different ideologies
who is Julius Caesar? very popular social reformer and conqueror (Gaul)
what did Julius do? -Seized Rome in 49 B.C.E. -Claimed the title "dictator for life," 46 B.C.E. -Social reforms and centralized control
What did Octavion (Augustus) do? -brought civil conflict to an end -new standing army under his control -Monarchy disguised as a republic -imperial institutions began to take root
Rome expansion: Mediterranean basin, western Europe, down Nile to Kush
Well-engineered Roman roads: postal system
Roman law--tradition: twelve tables (450 B.C.E.)
Pax romana: Lasted two and a half centuries
what is latifundia? large landed estate or ranch in ancient Rome, typically worked by slaves.
Mediterranean trade -Sea lanes linked ports -free of pirates -became a Roman lake
city of rome attractions: pools, fountains, arches, temples, stadiums, baths, gymnasia, circuses, & amphitheaters
city of rome success: -Wealth -First use of concrete as construction material -attracted numerous immigrants
how were pater familias? -eldest male of the family ruled -women supervised family business and wealthy estates
what were the social classes? -rich classes-lavish lives -Cultivators and urban masses lived at subsistence level -Poor classes became a serious problem
how important was slavery? -one-third of the population -Urban slaves saw better conditions
what is stoicism? greek influence
who is Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.)? persuasive orator and writer on Stoicism
what two things were popular in roman society? Mithraism and cult of Goddess Isis
how did religion spread? through roman roads ( trade routes)
what did Jesus of Nazareth teach? devotion to God and love for human beings
what happened to Jesus? -Crucifixion in early 30s C.E. -Became "Christ," or "the anointed one"
what did The New Testament and the Old Testament become? the holy book of Christianity
how did christianity grow/expand? -Strong appeal to lower classes, urban population, and women -most influential faith in the Mediterranean by the third century C.E.
Created by: monse3102