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Chapter 10

When and where did the Minoan society rise? On the island of Crete, late third millennium B.C.E.
Who was the center of the Mediterranean commerce during 2200 and 1450 B.C.E.? Minoan society
How did Phoenicia and Egypt influence their society? -Advanced sailing craft of Phoenician design -Ships sailed to Greece, Anatolia, Phoenicia and Egypt
Why did the Minoan society decline? Natural disasters and fell under foreign domination after invaders attacked.
What is Minoan Linear A? An early form of Greek used to record economic and commercial matters.
Who started the Mycenaean society? Indo-European immigrants that settled in Greece
What attracted settlers to build small agricultural communities? Stone fortresses in Peloponnesus that served as protection.
1500 to 1100 B.C.E.? The Mycenaean society overpowered Minoan society and expanded to Anatolia, Sicily and Italy
How did chaos in the E Mediterranean affect their society? Invasions and civil disturbances made it possible to maintain stable governments or even productive agricultural societies.
What happened after the Trojan War? Mycenaean palaces fell into ruin and their population fled to different places.
Polis A bustling city: states that functioned as the principal centers of Greek society
Helots Unfree servants of the Spartan state, they kept society stocked with food
How did Sparta begin to extend control during the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E.? They devoted most of their resources to maintain a powerful and disciplined military machine
What did the Sparta society consist of? -Discouraged social distinction; Distinction was drawn by prowess, discipline and military talent.
How did Athens expand political base? -Wanted to negotiate order by democratic principles -Citizenship was open to free adult males, slaves and women -Opened political offices
What did Maritime trade prosperity bring? -Gave more wealth and power to aristocrats -Owners of small plots fell in debt which led to pushing them into slavery
What was the cause of the brutal civil wars? Class tension became intensified in the sixth century B.C.E.
What happened during the late sixth and fifth centuries B.C.E.? Athens turned into a democratic state, could not exclude anyone from anything
Who was the most popular Athenian leader in 461 B.C.E.? Pericles, who converted Athens into the education of Greece
How did Greek Colonization help? -Facilitated trade among Mediterranean lands and people -Spread of the Greek language and cultural traditions -Stimulated development of surrounding areas
What did the conflict with Persia result in? -The Persian War -Battle of Marathon Athen won -Xerxes tried to seize Athens; his navy lost battle of Salamis
Delian League? Discourage further Persian actions in Greece, Athens was the leader of the League and obtained many things in their favor
What occurred in the Persian War? Sparta forced Athens into an unconditional surrender
What did Phillip of Macedon do and when? Brought Greece under control Reigned 359-336 B.C.E.
What did Alexander of Macedon do? -Succeeds Philip at age twenty -Controlled Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia in 331 B.C.E. -Invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis -Crossed the Indus River
Hellenistic Empires? Antigonid, Ptolemaic & Seleucid
Created by: alexis3102