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Mod 4 Ch 29

Ch 29 Respiratory

upper respiratory tract nose, paranasal sinuses, sinus, pharynx
pharynx connects nose, mouth, and throat
lower respiratory tract larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
larynx voice box
epiglottis closes larynx during swallowing
trachea -windpipe -passageway through which air reaches the lungs
bronchi -2 main branches from trachea -left and right
bronchioles -branches from main bronchi -distributes air to alveoli
alveoli -balloon-like structures that inflate and deflate during ventilation -exchange of oxygen and CO2 occurs here
ventilation one breath in and out
inspiration inhalation
expiration exhalation
lungs -2 sides -right has 3 lobes (superior, middle, and inferior) -left has 2 lobes (superior and inferior)
right side of lung 3 lobes (superior, middle, and inferior)
left side of lung 2 lobes (superior and inferior)
mediastinum -separates lungs -space that contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, and blood vessels
asthma -chronic inflammatory disease of bronchi -s/s-difficulty breathing, coughing, wheezing, tightness in chest, may cause allergic reaction -tx-bronchodilators
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease -COPD -consists of bronchitis and emphysema -s/s-sob, persistent cough, increased # of infections -tx-stop doing things that make it worse (smoking), bronchodilators, O2 -chest x-ray / ct scan
Bronchitis -inflammation of bronchial passages -s/s-hacking cough, white / green phlegm (24-48 hours after cough starts), tightness in chest, SOB -tx-rest, fluids, stop smoking, use inhaler / nebulizer, oral steroids
Emphysema -long-term progressive disease of lungs. -attacks structures of alveoli -smoking is major cause -s/s-sob, cyanosis in lips and nail beds, tachycardia -tx-stop smoking, bronchodilators, oral steroids, O2
Hay Fever -seasonal allergic rhinitis -allergy causes nasal passage to be inflamed and irritated -s/s-sneezing, congestion, runny nose, itchy eyes -tx-antihistamines (to prevent mucous membranes from getting inflamed)
Legionnaire's Disease -type of lung infection caused by breathing in H2O mist contaminated with bacterium (showers, hot tubs, air conditioners) -s/s-2-14 days after exposure, fever, sweating, headache, cough, sob, muscle pain -tx-fluids, antibiotics, electrolytes
Lung Cancer -affects lung tissue -leading cause of CA deaths in US -smoking is primary factor -s/s-asymptomatic, cough, hemoptysis, sob, wheezing, angina, fatigue -tx-surgery, chemo, raditation
Pertussis -whooping cough -bacterial infection of upper respiratory tract -caused by bacteria -s/s-cough, fever, "whooping" sound, vomit while coughing -tx-antibiotics, O2, sedatives
Pleurisy -inflammation of the membrane that surrounds / protects the lungs -caused by respiratory infections such as Tb and pneumonia -s/s-angina, coughing / sneezing are unbearable due to pain -tx-anti inflammatory drugs, analgesics, cough supp, codeine
pneumonia -inflammation of lungs caused by bacteria, fungi, or chemical irritants -pneumococcus is most common -s/s-cough w sputum, fever, chills, angina, muscle aches -tx-O2, and respiratory therapy
Pulmonary Embolism -PE -blood clot in lungs -s/s-angina, sob, tachypnea, tachycardia, dry cough -tx-thrombolytics, O2, anticoagulants
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -SARS -HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS -virus can remain alive for up to 6 hours on surface -usually occurs during winter -s/s-2-10 days for symptoms, fever 100.4, chils, h/a, muscle aches -tx-antibiotics and steroids to decrease lung inflammation
Tuberculosis -Tb -contagious disease caused by Myobacterium Tb -spreads through inhaled droplets from infected person -s/s- hemoptysis, night sweats, cough, fatigue, chills, weakness, anorexia -tx-takes 9-12 months to destroy bacteria thru series of abx therapies
Created by: vanstellee