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Ch 4&5 Study Guide
|The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture.
|Assimilation to a single national cultural norm.
|The process through which something is given monetary value. Commodification occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded
|The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person—analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
|Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
|The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
|The visible imprint of of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
|Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
|A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
|A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
|A geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities.
|Practice routinely followed by a group of people.
|Affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture.
|Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs.
|Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
|Social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes. Notions of gender differences—that is, what is considered “feminine” or “masculine”— vary greatly over time and space.
|The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.
|A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas
|Group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
|The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
|The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people.
|Defined by geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next.
|Cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today’s changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies.
|assumptions and structures about who is in control and who has power over others. Power relationships affect identities directly, and the nature of those effects depends on the geographical context in which they are situated.
|A categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas that some biological differences (especially skin color) are more important
|Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrants.
|Defined by geographers Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of an urban environment.
|With respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own.