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Ch 4&5 Study Guide

TermDefinition
assimilation The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture.
acculturation Assimilation to a single national cultural norm.
commodificaton The process through which something is given monetary value. Commodification occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded
contagious diffusion The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person—analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
cultural barriers Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
cultural diffusion The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
cultural landscape The visible imprint of of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
culture hearth Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
culture complex A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
culture trait A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
culture region A geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities.
custom Practice routinely followed by a group of people.
ethnicity Affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture.
ethnic neighborhoods Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs.
folk culture Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
gender Social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes. Notions of gender differences—that is, what is considered “feminine” or “masculine”— vary greatly over time and space.
globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.
hierarchical diffusion A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas
local culture Group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others.
material culture The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
non-material culture The beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people.
placelessness Defined by geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next.
popular culture Cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today’s changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies.
power relationships assumptions and structures about who is in control and who has power over others. Power relationships affect identities directly, and the nature of those effects depends on the geographical context in which they are situated.
race A categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas that some biological differences (especially skin color) are more important
relocation diffusion Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrants.
residential segregation Defined by geographers Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of an urban environment.
reterritorialization With respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of their local culture and making it their own.
Created by: mattpdl