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Ch 9 muscles/tissues

Ch 9 practice exam muscles and muscle tissues

QuestionAnswer
What are the characteristics of slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers? They depend on oxygen delivery and aerobic mechanisms. They are RED FIBERS, the smallest of the fiber types. Are abundant in muscles used to maintain posture. high % found in marathon runners.
What are the characteristics of Fast (oxidative or glycolytic), fatigable fibers? They have very fast-acting myosin, ATPases and depend upon anaerobic metabolism during contraction. Contain large amounts of glycogen.
What is maximal stimulus? The stimulus above which no strongest contraction can be elicited, because all motor units are firing in the muscle.
What is the phenomenon where the contraction strength of a muscle increases due to increase in Ca2+ availability and enzyme efficiency during the warm up? Treppe
What is tetanus? Continued sustained smooth contraction due to rapid stimulation
Whats the name of the situation in which contractions become stronger due to stimulation before complete relaxation occurs? Wave summation
How is a smooth increase in muscle force produced? Multiple motor unit summation.
What is a sarcomere? The distance between 2 Z-discs
What does the I-band contain? It only contains the actin filaments
What are the Thicker filaments called? Myosin filaments
What is found in the A-Band? Actin and myosin
Where are myosin filaments located? they are located in the A-band
What serves as a "trigger" for muscle contraction by removing the inhibition of troponin molecules? and is also stored in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum? Calcium Ions
What is Acetylcholine? A neurotransmitter released at motor end plates by the axon terminals.
What is Aerobic respiration? A metabolic pathway that provides lots of ATP per glucose, because oxygen is used. Products are water, CO2, and ATP.
What does Creatine phosphate do? converts ADP to ATP by transfer of high-energy phosphate group. a reserve high energy compound.
What does Acetylcholinesterase do? It destroys ACh.
Once a motor neuron has fired, all the muscle fibers in a muscle contract. T OR F? False
The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide subunit G actin that bear active sites for myosin attachment. T OR F? True
The force of muscle contraction is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment. T OR F? True
Eccentric contractions are more forceful than concentric contractions. T OR F? True
A motor neuron and all the muscle plates are referred to as a motor end plate. T OR F? False
Peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle. T OR F? True
A contraction in which a muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called isometric. T OR F? True
During isotonic contraction, the heavier the load, the faster the velocity of contraction. T OR F? False
During Isometric contraction, the energy used appears as movement. T OR F? False
One of the important functions of skeletal muscle contractions is to produce heat. T OR F? True
Oxygen debt refers to the oxygen required to make creatine phosphate, T OR F? False
Although there are no sarcomeres, smooth muscle still possesses thick and thin filaments. T OR F? True
Whereas skeletal muscle cells are electrically coupled, smooth muscle cells appear to be chemically coupled by gap junctions. T OR F? False
Single unit smooth muscle is found in the intestines. T OR F? True
A resting potential is caused by a difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell. T OR F? True
The effect of a neuro transmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to modify its ion permeability properties temporarily. T OR F? True
When a muscle fiber contracts, the I-Bands diminish in size, the H zones disappear, and the A bands move closer together but do not diminish in length. T OR F? True
The more slowly a skeletal muscle is stimulated the greater its external force becomes. T OR F? False
Contractures are a result of a total lack of ATP. T OR F? True
Smooth muscles relax when intracellular Ca2+ levels drop but may not cease contractions. T OR F? True
Recruitment is an option of a single unit smooth muscle cell. T OR F? False
What is the major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contractions? To regulate intracellular calcium concentration.
What is muscular dystrophy? when muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy.
Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate? Smooth
What do most muscles contain? A mixture of fiber types.
Fatigued muscle cells that recover rapidly are products of what? Intense exercise of short duration.
What will increasing the stimulation up to maximal stimulus achieve? The strongest muscle contractions.
What is recruited later in muscle stimulation when contractile strength increases? Motor units with larger, less excitable neurons.
What is NOT a usual result of resistance exercise? Increase in the number of muscle cells
In skeletal muscle contraction, what does calcium do? Remove the blocking action of tropomyosin.
What molecules do calcium ions bind to in skeletal muscle cells? Calcium Ions bond to troponin molecules.
What does myoglobin do? Myoglobin stores oxygen in muscle cells.
An elaborate network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that functions in calcium storage is called: The sarcoplasmic reticulum
Immediately after the stimulus arrive at the skeletal muscle cell there is a short period called the LATENT period, during which the events of ________ occur. Excitation-contraction coupling occurs
How does Creatine phosphate function in the muscle cell? It stores energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP.
What happens to to calcium after nervous stimulation of the muscle cell has ceased? The calcium level in cytoplasm drops.
what is the major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction? To regulate intracellular calcium concentration.
What is produced mainly by the arrangement of myofilaments? The striations of a skeletal muscle cell are produced
What are thick filaments composed of? Myosin
What active sites do myosin cross bridges attach to during muscle contraction? Actin filaments
What surrounds the individual muscle cell? Ensomysium
What are smooth muscles that act like skeletal muscles and are controlled by autonomic nerves and hormones called? Multiunit muscles
Why does Rigor mortis occur? Because there is no ATP available to release attached actin and myosin molecules.
What does NOT act as stimulus to initiate muscle contraction? a change in temperature.
What does Aponeurosis refer to? a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element
What is the oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells? Myoglobin
Whats the name of the contractile units in skeletal muscles? Myofibrils
What is the site of calcium regulation in the smooth muscle cell called? Calmodulin
One functional unit of skeletal muscle is___: a sarcomere
What is the functional role of T Tubules? to enhance cellular communication during muscle contraction.
What is the role of calcium ions in muscle contraction? to bind to regulatory sites on troponin, changing the configuration.
The warm-up period required of athletes in order to bring their muscles to peak performance is called___: TREPPE
Main effect of warm-up of athletes as muscle contractions increase in strength is to_____: Enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems.
During vigorous exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. What is the Pyruvic acid converted to? LACTIC ACID
When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, which period is it in? Refractory Period.
What happens during an isotonic contraction? the muscle changes in length and moves the load
What is the SARCOLEMMA? the muscle cell membrane.
what is one way that smooth muscle is different from striated muscle? Smooth muscle contracts in a twisting way.
The mechanism for smooth muscle is different from skeletal muscle because: the site of calcium regulation differs.
What type of cells exhibit spontaneous action potentials? the cells of single unit visceral muscle.
What is not true about the developmental aspects of muscle? there is no biological basis for the difference in strength between women and men.
What is true about smooth muscle contraction? certain smooth muscle cells can actually divide to increase their numbers.
Muscle tissues has all the following properties (Contractability, excitability, extensibility) EXCEPT: Secretion
What maintains the organization of the A-Band assisting in muscle stretching? the giant protein TITIN
What is true about striated muscle cells? They are long and cylindrical w/ many nuclei
An anaerobic metabolic pathwya that results in the production of 2 ATPs per glucose plus 2 pyruvic acid molecules is______: Glycolysis
What is muscle tone? A state of sustained partial contraction
What does the sliding filament model of contraction involve? Actin and Myosin sliding past eachother and partially overlap.
what is true about isotonic contraction? Muscle tension remains relatively constant.
What is the most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue? Its ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy.
3 discrete types of muscle fibers are identified based on size, speed, and endurance. wich would best represent the use of red fibers? a Long relaxing swim
Which muscle type has has only 1 nucleus, NO sarcomeres, and rare gap junctions? Multiunit smooth muscle
Hypothetically if a muscle were stretched to the point where thick and thin filaments no longer overlapped what would happen? No muscle tension could be generated.
If a person has ingested a chemical that binds to ACh receptors in the sarcolemma, ignoring effects on other systems what would happen to the skeletal muscle system? there would be co contractions at all. by nervous mechanisms, but contractions if stimulated by an external electrode. (cigs)
What are caveoli? folds on surface of smooth muscle cells that correspond with T Tubules in skeletal muscle cells
Created by: Chanellenae