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AP WH Ch 10-11

Byzantine & Western Europe

Hagia Sophia great domed church constructed during reign of Justinian in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople---later converted to mosque after its fall.
Icon images of religious figures venerated by Byzantine Christians; source of division between Orthodox & Catholic church
Cyril & Methodius Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and Balkans; responsible for creation of Slavic written script called Cyrillic.
Vladimir I ruler of Kiev (980–1015); converted kingdom to Orthodox Christianity.
Boyars Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts.
Tatars Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th century; left Russian church and aristocracy intact, in exchange of enforcement of taxation & tribute
Middle Ages the period in western European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century, which saw a decline in trade, urban population, and centralized authority
Vikings seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the 8th to 11th centuries; pushed across the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and North America. Formed permanent territories in Normandy and Sicily.
Manorialism rural system of living in which peasants and artisans exchanged labor for use of land and protection of the lord of the manor.
Serfs peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system.
the Moldboard curved-plated accessory to the plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils.
Three-field System practice of dividing land into thirds, rotating between two different crops and pasturage—an improvement making use of manure.
Clovis King of the Franks; converted to Christianity circa 496
Carolingians royal house of Franks from 8th to 10th century.
Charles Martel first Carolingian king of the Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732, stopping the Muslim advance into Western Europe
Charlemagne Carolingian monarch who was crowned by the Pope as Holy Roman Emperor in 800, trying to unify European politics with religion
Vassals members of the military elite who received land (fief) from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
William the Conqueror invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in England.
the Magna Carta Great charter issued by King John of England in 1215; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy and the supremacy of law.
Parliament bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the principle that kings ruled with the advice and consent of their subjects; primarily concerned with taxation & warfare decisions
the Three Estates the three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries: church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Hundred Years War conflict between England and France (1337–1453) between proponents of feudal rights (France) and independent Nation-States (England)
Pope Urban II organized the first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control.
Gregory VII 11th-century pope who attempted to free church from secular control; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops.
Investiture the practice of appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory attempted to stop lay investiture, leading to a conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
Peter Abelard university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology-study of religion
St. Bernard of Clairvaux emphasized role of faith over logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
Thomas Aquinas creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; author of Summa Theologica; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
Scholasticism dominant medieval philosophical approach based in universities; use of logic to resolve theological problems.
Gothic an architectural style that developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
the Hanseatic League an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial trade alliance.
Guilds associations of artisans in the same occupation in a single city; stressed limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; held a privileged place in cities.
the Black Death bubonic plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe’s population; affected social structure.
Created by: wm0397