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WH Unit 3 Key Terms

Avignon (p.398) A city of southeast France on the Rhone River. It was the seat of the papacy from 1309 to 1378 and the residence of several antipopes from 1378 to 1417.
Chivalry The sum of the ideal qualifications of a knight, including courtesy, generosity, valor, and dexterity in arms
Commercial Revolution The expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries
Common Law A unified body of law formed from rulings of England’s royal judges that serves as the basis for law in may English-speaking countries today, including the United States – is not written down in one document
Crusades Any of the military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Estates-General In France, an assembly of representatives from all 3 of the estates (social classes); helped increase royal power against the nobility; 1st Estate – Church leaders, 2nd Estate – Great Lords, and 3rd Estate – commoners, wealthy landholders, and merchants
Feudalism Political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief, or fee, and the resulting relation of lord to vassal; characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
The Great Schism 1378; A division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and in Rome; popes lived in Avignon for 69 years
Hundred Years War Began as a fight over the right to the French throne; England and France battled on French soil on and off from 1337 to 1453
Magna Carta The “Great Charter”-- a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in 1215CE; included rights like no taxation without representation and trial by jury
Monasteries Houses or places of residence occupied by a community of persons, especially monks, living in seclusion under religious vows
Parliament Legislature of Great Britain, historically the assembly of the three estates, now composed of House of Lords and House of Commons
Three Field System A system of crop rotation that was in operation in western Europe by the 9th century. One-third of land was left fallow, one-third planted in spring grains, and one-third in the season's crops such as barley and vegetables.
Troubadours A medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love
Vikings Seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century
William the Conqueror The Duke of Normandy (a province of France), and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England; he defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman king of England
Created by: jhanes2