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World Studies

Ch 7 Reading Guide - Lesson 1-3

Geography played an important part in the development of? Rome
Italy is a narrow _______________ in the _______________ Sea with a gentle mountain range extending from north to south and fairly large, fertile _______________. peninsula, Mediterranean, plains
Rome was located safely _______________, with access to the _______________ and protection from seven _______________, which surrounded it. inland, sea, hills
Rome was settled by the _______________, colonized by the _______________, and then developed by the _______________. Latins, Greeks, Etruscans
In 509 B.C., the Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king, established a republic, and ushered in a new era in .... Rome’s history.
In a republic, the leader is not a _______________, and some _______________ have the right to _______________. monarch, citizens, vote
The Roman _______________ was a system by which some people had full Roman _______________ and others were made _______________, but all had a stake in Rome’s success. confederation, citizenship, allies
In addition to being very practical, the Romans were good _______________, accomplished _______________, and brilliant _______________. diplomats, soldiers, strategists
Early Rome was divided into two groups or orders of citizens—the ruling _______________, or wealthy landowners, and the _______________, who paid taxes, served in the military, and voted patricians, plebeians
Despite equality under the law for all _______________ citizens, the Roman Republic did not become a _______________. male, democracy
The Romans developed a sophisticated system of _______________ law and a larger body of law known as the _______________. civil, Law of Nations
How did Rome develop from a farming settlement into a republic? (Answer is in 3 parts) Part 1-Because its geography fostered trade but offered protection from invaders, Rome was able to develop over time into a trading center; it was settled by Latin's, colonized by Greeks, and then developed by the Etruscans; ...
How did Rome develop from a farming settlement into a republic? (Answer is in 3 parts) Part 2-as Rome grew, the Romans developed a confederation, which allowed some conquered peoples to have full Roman citizenship and made others into allies with the opportunity to gain citizenship; ....
How did Rome develop from a farming settlement into a republic? (Answer is in 3 parts) Part 3 civil structures included the division of male landowners into patricians and plebeians; increasing legislative rights and responsibilities were extended to plebeians; the Romans also developed codes of laws that applied to citizens & noncitizens.
Though _______________ formed only a tiny minority of the Roman Republic, they came to control the _______________ _______________ offices. aristocrats, senate, political
Tiberius and Gaius _______________ were killed after they had the council pass _______________ bills to help the poor. Gracchus, land-reform
The Roman general _______________, who recruited poor men, promised recruits _______________ and demanded loyalty to _______________. Marius, land, the general
Lucius Cornelius _______________ used his armies to seize _______________ and conduct a reign of terror against the _______________. Sulla, Rome, opposition
The _______________, which was formed by Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar, lasted until 47 B.C., when Caesar became _______________ of Rome. First Triumvirate, dictator
Pompey had a command in _______________, Crassus had a command in _______________, and Caesar had a special military command in _______________. Spain, Syria, Gaul (or France)
After Caesar’s death, his heir and grandnephew _______________, Caesar’s ally and assistant _______________, and Caesar’s cavalry commander _______________, joined forces. Octavian, Antony, Lepidus
The _______________, ended when Octavian defeated the allied forces of ______________, and the two fled to _______________, where they committed suicide. Second Triumvirate, Antony and Cleopatra, Egypt
In 27 B.C., _______________, who was called _______________, or “the wise one,” became the first Roman _______________. Octavian, Augustus, emperor
What characterized society and politics during the Roman Republic? How was the Roman Empire formed? (Answer in 3 parts) Part 1-By the second century B.C., a small circle of wealthy and powerful families increasingly controlled the Roman Senate and political offices; landless poor flocked to the cities and were recruited to armies with promises of land;
What characterized society and politics during the Roman Republic? How was the Roman Empire formed? (Answer in 3 parts) Part2- these armies owed their loyalty to generals, not to Rome. Struggles among generals led to civil war; after the first civil war, Caesar became a dictator; after the second civil war, Octavian became sole ruler;
What characterized society and politics during the Roman Republic? How was the Roman Empire formed? (Answer in 3 parts) Part3- he declared a restoration of the Roman Republic and returned some power to the senate, but in actuality, he became the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
Who's new political system allowed the emperor to select his successor from his natural or adopted family? Augustus
What was the Pax Romana, and when did it take place? The Pax Romana, or Roman Peace, began with the second century and lasted almost a hundred years. It was ruled by the “five good emperors”: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
How did Hadrian protect the Roman Empire’s borders? He strengthened the fortifications along a line connecting the Rhine and Danube rivers and built a wall across northern Britain.
What were the chief economic activities of Romans? Many Romans were active in trade and commerce, but farming remained the chief occupation of many people and was the foundation of Rome’s prosperity.
What aspects of Greek culture did the Romans adopt? What innovations did they initiate? Romans collected and made reproductions of Greek statues and used elements of Greek architecture, but they also used their own curved forms, used concrete on a massive scale, and engineered extensive roads and aqueducts.
When was the golden age of Latin Literature, and who were its most distinguished writers? The Age of Augustus, which featured works by Virgil and Horace, was the golden age of Latin Literature.
When did Roman women begin to enjoy freedom and independence? How did their lives change? By the A.D. 100s, a husband’s absolute authority over his wife disappeared. Women were no longer required to have guardians. They had the right to own, inherit, and sell property and could attend races, the theater, and the amphitheater.
Why did Rome have more slaves than any other ancient society? When Roman conquerors captured people in times of war, they brought the people back as slaves.
Where did rich Romans live? Where did the poor live? Rich Romans lived in comfortable villas, while the poor lived in poorly built concrete apartment blocks called insulae.
What was the Roman attitude toward religion? The Romans believed that they were successful because they had found favor with the gods. They also declared popular emperors gods. Yet they were tolerant of other religions and even adopted some provincial gods.
How was the early Roman Empire different from the Roman Republic? (Answer in 3 Parts) Part 1-The early Roman Empire was ruled by a succession of increasingly powerful emperors instead of a senate; unlike the Roman Republic, which was defined by civil wars,
How was the early Roman Empire different from the Roman Republic? (Answer in 3 Parts Part 2- the empire enjoyed nearly a century of peace, which was known as the Pax Romana; the Roman Empire saw a widening gulf between the rich and poor; however, it was also the setting for advances in art, architecture, and literature;
How was the early Roman Empire different from the Roman Republic? (Answer in 3 Parts Part 3- social changes during the early years of the empire both decreased the power of the paterfamilias and increased the freedom and independence of women.
Created by: PLHSWorld1