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3 Early Empires in t

JAHKMLHS C3 Early Empires in the Ancient Near East

TermDefinition
Empire large political unit or state, usually under a single ruler
Akkadian Empire begun by Sargon in 2340 B. C. in which he used the former rulers of the conquered cities as his governors; included all the lands of Mesopotamia and extended to Lebanon
Sargon First ruler of Akkadian empire; “had no rival or equal, spread his splendor over all the lands and crossed the sea in the east”;
Naram-Sin Sargon’s grandson; ruled Akkadian Empire from 2260-2223; boasted that he was “King of the Four Corners of the Universe”; declared himself a god; continued the greatness of the Empire.
Hammurabi came to power in 1792 B.C.—1750 B.C.; made Babylon his capital; established earliest known law code
Patriarchal society dominated by men
Code of Hammurabi earliest known law code; earliest coherent system that survives; based on system of strict justice
Hyksos a group of people from western Asia who invaded Egypt about 1650 B.C.
chariots horse-drawn two-wheeled battle carts, also used in processions and races
New Kingdom This name refers to Egypt from 1550 B.C to 1070 B.C., when it became the most powerful state in the near East;
Ahmose I This leader, 1550-1525 B.C., defeated and expelled the Hyksos from Egypt; reunited Egypt and launched Egyptians along a new militaristic path
Thutmosis I This leader, 1504-1492 B.C., expanded Egypt’s borders south by conquering Nubia; he then invaded Syria and subjugated it from the coast to Carchemish
Thutmosis III This leader, 1473-1458 B. C., led 15-17 military campaigns into Canaan and Syria and even reached as far as the Euphrates River
Amenhotep III This leader, 1390-1352 B.C., is known for magnificent new buildings and temples, especially at Karnak and Luxor. By the end of reign faced a growing challenge from the Hittites
Amenhotep IV This leader, 1352-1336 B. C., began a religious upheaval in Egypt by introducing the worship of Aten, god of the sun disk. He closed the temples of other gods and set up a new capital at Tell el-‘ Amarna.
Akhenaten This is the name that Amenhotep IV took for himself.
Tutankhamen This boy king, 1336-1327 B. C., restored the old gods which his father had gotten rid of.
Hatshepsut This leader, 1479-1425 B. C., was one of the most successful and beneficent rulers of Egypt. Internal order was maintained without undue tyranny. This leader organized a great expedition to Punt.
Ramses II This leader, 1279-1213 B. C., stabilized the empire and regained control of Canaan
Cleopatra This leader who ruled about 49 – 30 B. C., tried to reestablish Egypt’s independence; however, involvement with Rome led to defeat and suicide.
Kingdom of Kush This kingdom, formerly Nubia, became independent and in 750 B.C. conquered Egypt. Having a large supply of iron ore, iron weapons and tools were made for export.
Assyrian Empire included Mesopotamia, parts of the Plateau of Iran, sections of Asia Minor, Syria, Israel, and Egypt
Ashurbanipal This son of King Esarhaddon one of the last Assyrian kings. He established one of the world’s first libraries at Nineveh. He was a popular king who ruled his citizens fairly but was marked for his cruelty toward those whom he defeated.
Chaldeans This people inhabited the coastal area near the Persian Gulf and had never been entirely pacified by the Assyrians. About 630 Nabopolassar became king of the Chaldeans. In 626 he forced the Assyrians out of Uruk and crowned himself king of Babylonia
Nebuchadnezzar II This leader made Babylon the leading state in western Asia, rebuilt Babylon, made it the center of his empire, and gave Babylon the reputation as one of the great cities of the ancient world.
Hanging Gardens This is considered one of the seven wonder of the world built supposedly by a Babylonian king as a gift to his wife, Amytis, who was homesick for the beautiful vegetation and mountains of her native Media
Persian Empire Indo-European nomads who lived in what is today southwestern Iran. They were unified by one family.
Cyrus This leader created a powerful Persian state that stretched from Asia Minor to India. In539 captured Babylon and allowed Jews who had been held captive in Babylon to return to Israel
Cambyses
Darius This leader, 521-486 B.C., added a new Persian province in western India that extended to the Indus River and conquered Thrace in Europe, creating the world’s largest to that time. He established an efficient communication system.
Satrapies These are the provinces into which Darius divide the empire (20 in all).
satraps These are the governors of the provinces set up by Darius who collected taxes, administered justice, and recruited soldiers.
Immortals This was the core of Persian army made up of10,000 cavalry and 10,000 infantry. When one member is killed, he is immediately replaced
Monarchy government by a sovereign ruler such as a king to queen
Artaxerxes II This leader, 404-358, attempted to put down rebellion in Egypt. He supposedly had 115 sons
Zoroastrianism This was the religion of Persians. Followers believed that there is one God (Wise Lord) who created the world.
Zend Avesta sacred book of the Zoroastrians
Ahuramazda This is the supreme being who created all things and gave all humans the right to choose between right and wrong.
Ahriman evil spirit opposing Ahuramazda
Created by: jim.haferman