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World Civ

Empire comes from Latin word "Imperium," two strategies for maintaining: let them keep part of their culture and earn their trust, or force them out of fear (skin/impale people who don't do what they're told)
Imperium means power and authority
Assyrian eventually conquered both the Medes and Persians, forcing them to pay tribute although never completely subjugating them
Siege warfare
Deportation moving people groups instead of killing them
Impalement way of frightening people so they won't rebel
Nineveh Assyrian capital, destroyed by exes and Chaldeans, library here as one of the best-known in the world, city burned to the ground, library reconstructed, and clay tablets found
Ashurbanipal boasted that he could read and write telling that many kings/emperors couldn't read/write, created the Royal Library of Nineveh
Indirect rule keep rulers in place, but they have to answer to new overthrowing power
Herodotus Greek historian, born in Halicarnassus, "Father of History," "The Histories"
Xenophon Greek soldier, historian, mercenary, writings on the history from the 4th century (Cyropaedia and the education of Cyrus)
Cyrus the Great rise to power in 559, conquered Lydia and Babylon, unified the tribes of Persia under the Archaemenid house
Cyrus Cylinder written in cuneiform, found in Babylon
Massagetae a nomadic people of Scythian origin in northwestern India, were contemptuous of Persian ideals and indifferent to Persian control, resisted Cyrus' rule
Scythian nomadic warriors from Central Asia, who invaded Iran through the passage between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains
Tomyris queen of Massagetae, knocked Cyrus off his horse in battle and severed his head with a single blow of her sword
Cambyses Cyrus' son, invaded Egypt, bringing the Nile Valley under Persian control
Babylonian Captivity
Persepolis "Persian city," the most visually striking of all Persian cities due to its walls paying homage to Cyrus or Darius
Darius conquered Egypt, ruled empire at its peak, divided empire into provinces, widely viewed as an illegitimate heir to the throne
Standardization monetary unit
Satrapy provincial governship dividing the Persian Empire into 20 provinces
Satrap governor who oversees satrapies, "the eyes and ears of the Great King"
Royal Road one large road that is divided into different stages with checkpoints with guards, establishes a sense of safety
Qanats ancient underground irrigation system, transport water from source to cities, evaporate up
Zarathustra also known as Zoroaster, Persian religion based on his teaching, perceived Ahura Mazda as the universal god of light who had created human beings and given them free will to choose between right and wrong
Magi scholar-priests who guarded the temples and compiled Zoroaster's ideas in the Avesta (a sacred text)
Zoroastrianism dualist religion of the world, based on the teaching of Zarathusthra, one good god and one bad god, gave divine sanction to the ambtions of Persian emperors
Ahura Mazda the good god of the Zoroastrianism religion
Angra Mainyu/Ahriman the bad god of the Zoroastrianism religion, Ahura Mazda's malignant twin that was banished from paradise but still sought to influence human behavior as lord of the forces of darkness
Ionian Revolt started the fall of the Persian Empire in 499 BC
Persian Wars Greeks started invading Persia in 492 BC, Persia and Greece always had conflict, Persia sometimes lost battles but never lost wars
Marathon battle here was the first time the Persians were defeated (490 BC), Persians outnumbered Greeks 2:1, but the Persians lost 6,000 of their 20,000 men while Greece only lost 192 men
Thermophylae 360 Spartans held out against more than 10,000 Persians, the Spartans died to the last man
Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC, rival alliances led by Athens and Sparta clawed at one another and left the Greek mainland open to intervention and invasion
Macedonian a new threat to Persian power arising north of Greece, led by Philip II
Minoan named after minotaurs and Minos
Knossos in Crete
Sir Arthur Evans discovered Palace of Knossos
Minos mythical Cretan ruler, fought his brothers for the throne of Crete, pray he make sacrifice to Poseidon who sends him a bull but Minos sacrificed horse & kept the bull, Poseidon made Minos' wife lust after bull and had intercourse with it and got pregnant
Minotaur half man, half bull
Linear A Minoan writing system, not deciphered
Linear B Mycenaean writing system, deciphered by Michael Ventris (Proto-Greek), early form of Greek
Mycenae first well-organized Greek civilization on the Greek peninsula
Iliad and Odyssey Homer's epic poems written allegedly in the eighth century BC
Troy a city in what is today western Turkey, Iliad takes place here
Hector fought Achilles for revenge
Achilles warrior hero, fought Hector for revenge
Trojan War Odysseus was one of the Greek heroes of this war
Heinrich Schliemann fascinated with mythology
Michael Ventris deciphered Linear B writing system, published a book documenting Mycenaean Greek that he deciphered
Dorian Invasion number of European people groups invading
Greek Dark Ages a chaotic era during which the Greeks evolved from Mycenaean monarchy to a political form more suited to regional isolation imposed by terrain 1100-750 BC
Homer Greek poet that wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Archaic Age 850 BC, overpopulation and shortage of land suitable for farming prompted many Greeks to colonize Sicily, Italy, France, and North Africa
Polis “city-state” referring to a city, its people, and the surrounding countryside
Colonization colonies built from 750-650 BC
Agora marketplace and gathering place, center of the Polis
Polybius distinguishes between a number of different forms of government, it's a cycle
Monarchy one-man rule, could be king, duke, etc., most prominent in ancient world
Kingship king becomes ruler
Tyranny the illegal seizure of power (usually in time of emergency) by someone who had no right to do it
Aristocracy few families ruling with common good in mind
Oligarchy rule by a select few, number of people rise up and overthrow families of aristocracy
Democracy rule by the entire body of citizens
Ochlocracy one leader distinguishes himself to create order again
Athens chose a limited democracy in which all adult male citizens enjoyed the right to cast votes that counted equally
Sparta created a society organized along militaristic lines and entrusted power to an oligarchy
Phalanx organized military formation of hoplites
Hoplite Spartan soldiers
Hoplon most prized possession of the hoplite, 3 ft. sield with wooden core
Panoply whole armor of the hoplite
Agoge Spartan training and education
Krypteia in order to complete agoge, you must kill a slave in a field
Spartiates free-born Spartan men, have to have completed agoge, must have done military work, not supposed to do manual labor
Mothakes not full Spartans/citizens, could fight in the war, could not hold political office
Perioikoi master of helots, in charge of economy, not allowed to work in military, not Spartan citizens
Helots outnumbered Spartans 7:1, did all the work, treated poorly
Lycurgus legendary lawgiver who may have lived in the seventh century BC
Double Kingship bloodline, equal in authority, similar to consuls in Rome, efforts to make sure one king doesn't become too powerful
Ephors chief overseers, first in line in foreign policy, make decisions, completed agoge and military, elected annually by Spartan citizens, oversee the two hereditary kings
Apella lower house, all Spartan citizens who vote by shouting, don't debate, elect Gerousia for life
Gerousia part of legislative party, higher house, 28 60+ Spartan citizens, elected for life, repair laws, supreme legal institution
Athenian Democracy rich landowners form council called areopagus. wealthy families dominate politics and gained more money
Solon one of the first great law makers, a poet, reformed democracy and the Athenian state, banned enslavement for debt and guaranteed basic rights to everyone
Pentakosiomedimnoi first property class, "500 measures," produce at ;east 500 medimnol
Hippeis "horseman," 300-499 medimnol
Zeugitai 200-399 medimnol
Thetes 100-299 medimnol, poor farmers, still part of assembly but no office
Peisistratos 6th century, 527-528 BC
Cleisthenes divides Attica into 3 areas (Athens city, the coast, and inland)
Trittyes there were 30 of these in the 3 geographical groupings
Boule council of 500
Heliaia regular civil cases, no lawyers/cross-examination
Ecclesia legislation, citizens have done 2 years service
Archons board of ten officials that administered the polis, handling all military and legal issues
Areopagus crimes of murder, all former archons
Pericles Athenian aristocrat who was repeatedly elected to the highest positions in government, made Greece an economic and commercial power
Trireme much smaller than Spartan, used to steer better
Delian League Athens forms this leadership for trade and defensive purposes, met on island Delos
Peloponnesian League formed by Sparta bc they felt threatened by Athens' League growing in power, Sparta attempted to minimize conflict by persuading neighboring states to join
Created by: pace_sauce