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7 The Romans

JAHKMLHS C7 The Romans

republic This term refers to a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote.
patrician This social class of wealthy, powerful landowners, formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic.
plebeian This social class consisted of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers.
consul This chief executive officer of the Roman Republic was one of two elected each year to run the government and lead the army.
praetor This official in the Roman Republic was responsible for enforcing civil law.
Senate This group served for life and was to advise government officials. By the end of the third century their advice had the force of law.
centuriate assembly This group elected the chief officials and passed laws.
council of Plebs This group was a legislative assembly created in 494 B. C. to make laws relative to the concerns of the commoners. In 287 B.C. all laws enacted by this assembly were binding to all citizens, patricians included.
Twelve Tables This was Rome’s first code of laws and was adopted in 450 B.C.
First Punic War In this war the Romans are able to take Sicily away from the Carthaginians.
Second Punic War The Carthaginians invade Italy; and when a number of southern Italian cities rebel against Roman rule, Rome seems on the brink of disaster.
Hannibal This man who had be taught to hate Romans from little on crossed the Alps with a large army and a number of war elephants to attempt to take the war to the Romans.
Battle of Cannae During the Second Punic War the Romans decided to meet the Carthaginian invasion head-on. In this battle as many as 40,000 Romans might have been killed
Scipio Africanus This Roman general led a Roman army to attack Carthage in the Second Punic War rather than facing the Carthaginian army in Italy.
Battle of Zama In this battle the Carthaginian army is crushed in 202 B.C.; Carthage has to give up Spain; and Carthage becomes a Roman province.
Fourth Macedonian War This war marked the end of tolerance toward the country enlarged by Philip.
Cato This Roman Senator constantly called for the destruction of Carthage.
triumvirate This is a government by three people with equal power.
dictator This man was appointed by the Senate for months or less to deal with an extraordinary situation.
imperator This man is the commander in chief of the army
Tiberius Gracchus This man, together with is brother, had the council of the plebs pass land-reform bills that called for the government to take back public land held by large landowners.
Julius Caesar This man was a member of the First Triumvirate; however, he became dictator in 47 B.C.; his actions helped to end the republic and begin the empire.
Augustus The Senate awarded this title to Octavian in 27 B.C.; the title means the revered one and had previously been reserved for the gods.
Octavian This man joined with two others to form the Second Triumvirate; defeats one of the other men of the Triumvirate at the Battle of Actium; and basically becomes the first Roman Emperor.
Lepidus This man who had been a good friend of Julius Caesar and who had helped Marc Antony keep things somewhat quiet in Rome after Julius Caesar’s assassination was a second rate member of the Second Triumvirate.
Marc Antony This man fell deeply in love with the Egyptian queen CleopatraVII and then saw his army and navy smashed at the Battle of Actium.
Pompey This man was a member of the First Triumvirate who was given a command in Spain. He also led the army against Caesar as Caesar marched on Rome and began a civil war.
Crassus This man was a member of the First Triumvirate and was given command of Syria. He was killed in battle in 53 B. C. leaving only 2 to rule Rome.
Marius This Roman general became consul in 107 B. C. He created a new system of military recruitment in which recruits were promised land for service.
Sulla This Roman general set the example of using an army to seize power.
Nero This emperor ruled when Paul was brought to Rome. During his reign many Christians were arrested and thrown to the wild beasts in the circus, crucified, or as 'lighting' in Nero's gardens, while Nero mingled among the watching crowds.
Trajan This emperor was a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death
Hadrian This emperor withdrew forces from Mesopotamia and built a 74-mile wall across northern Britain to keep out the Picts and the Scots.
Cincinnatus This man, a simple farmer, was chosen as dictator to save Rome from attack. He led his army to victory, resigned as dictator, and returned to his farm.
Circus Maximus This was a chariot racetrack in Rome first constructed in the 6th century B.C. . The Circus was also used for other public events such as the Roman Games and gladiator fights.
insulae These Roman apartment blocks, constructed of concrete walls with wooden beam floors, were poorly built and often collapsed.
Latifundia These were the large landed estates which dominated farming in southern and central Italy.
Spartacus In 73 B.C. this slave led a revolt in southern Italy and defeated several Roman armies before being trapped and killed.
Varus This Roman general led three Roman legions in an attempt to conquer Germany; however, the Romans were massacred by the Germanic warriors.
paterfamilias This was the dominant male head of the household.
Virgil This man who was the most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age wrote the Aeneid.
Horace This man who was a sophisticated writer in the Augustan Age pointed out some of the follies and vices of his age in the Satires.
Livy This historian produced The Early History of Rome in which he traced Roman history to 9 B.C.
Pax Romana This was a period of almost 200 years of peace and prosperity in Rome.
Created by: jim.haferman