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Pharm CT Q1

Parmacokinetics practice Quiz

Cimetidine/ Tagamet interferes with the cytochrome p450 enzyme pathway, impairing the body's ability to detoxify drugs. This adverse effect would be considered: Hepatotoxic
Repeated doses of Heparin can cause Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia. This adverse effect would be considered: Hematologic
Repeated doses of Valium given in rapid succession can add up to a dangerous level of over sedation. This "stacking" is a/an: Cumulative effect
"Dig toxicity" is a constant concern with Digitalis because Digitalis: Has a narrow Therapeutic Index
A severe allergic reaction involving more than once organ system is: Anaphylaxis
What type of drug interaction indicates that one medication may reverse the effect of another? Antagonistic
In pharmacology, antagonistic is sort of synonymous with: Antidote
What type of drugs are often bound to HCl in order to administer them intravenously? Lipid soluble drugs
Why are lipid soluble drugs bound to HCl? Lipids cannot be given directly into the bloodstream, the acid makes them water soluble
Which drugs when given intravenously require you to tell your patient "A poke and a burn"? Lipid soluble drugs
Drugs that block ion channels (such as calcium channel blockers) work by: Alteration of cell membrane permeability
ED 50= The dose of a drug that provides 50% of the optimal response
LD50/ED50 = TI
Biotransformation of drugs most often takes place in what cells? Hepatocytes
Antidotes block specific receptor sites through a process called: Competitive inhibition
1mg= 1000micrograms
Blood dyscrasias or diatheses are: Permanent abnormality of platelets
Administering a drug according to a sliding scale, such as insulin dosage based on blood glucose level, is a form of drug Titration
Elderly persons may have more active drug circulating in their blood stream because they have less bound to the plasma protein: Albumin
Twenty percent of hospitalizations for patients over the age of 65 are for adverse effects of medications. Illness due to drug reactions or interactions can be referred to as: Iatrogenic
Radiographic contrast, as well as some antibiotics may be nephrotoxic. Which of the following conditions is an example of nephrotoxicity? Acute tubular necrosis
Potentiation is a form of: Synergism
A water soluble drub binds to a cell membrane receptor. In order to cause a change in an intracellular enzyme, a/an _____ must be activated Second messenger
The dose of a drug that would kill 50% of the animals it was tested on would be : LD 50
The does of a drug that provides 50% of the maximal response is: ED 50
Therapeutic Index TI gives and estimate of relative safety. TI = LD/ED
After digestion drugs pass from the portal vein to be biotransformed in the: CYP 450 Pathway
Lipid Soluble Drugs: *Pass through the cell membrane directly into the cell; *Do not require a cell membrane receptor to work; * May be stored in body fat; * May be eliminated more slowly from the body than water soluble drugs
Grapefruit and Tagamet are examples of interference with he cytochrome p450 enzyme pathway's ability to detoxify calcium channel blockers. This could cause blood levels of the drug to: Increase
Permanent abnormality of platelets caused by medications would be a blood dyscrasia
Most biotransformation or detoxification of drugs takes place in the liver
Most elimination of drugs takes place in the kidneys
A drug which causes severe congenital defects would be called: Teratogenic
Tachyphylaxis (rapid loss of effectiveness) occurs through: Accelerated biotransformation by the liver
TI = LD/ED Therapeutic Index
Synergism Potentiation
Paradoxical Idiosyncratic
Hepatocytes Detoxify drugs
Cytochrome p450 Enzyme pathway in liver
Cell membrane stabilizers Effect ion channels
Nephrotoxicity Acute tubular necrosis
Stacking Cumulative effect
Abnormality of platelets Blood dyscrasia
T1/2 Therapeutic half life
Causes genetic defects Mutagenic
Antidote Reversal agent
Cimetidine/Tagamet interferes with the cytochrome p450 enzyme pathway, impairing the body's ability to detoxify drugs. This adverse effect would be considered: Hepatotoxic
Drugs tested in vitro are tested in: test tubes
Drugs tested in vivo are tested: in the body
CYP 450 is an: Enzyme with a wavelength of 450 nanometers
The population at greatest risk of polypharmacy is: the elderly
True or false" An adverse drug reaction is any drug effect other than what is therapeutically intended" False
True or False: As an individual ages in the late adulthood phase of life the liver's ability to metabolize increases as a result of increased blood flow False
True or false: The patient's age is a factor which can influence a drug's action and effect True
"First pass" through the ______________ refers to the detoxification of a drug as it completes one trip through the circulation. Liver
Your patient, Ms. Anita Graft is receiving a new medication which must pass through the liver in order to be chemically changed into the active form of the drug. The transformed medication that leaves the liver is called a/an: Active metabolite
Most drugs are eliminated from the body by: Renal filtration
Mechanisms of drug action include: *Enzyme inhibition; *Enzyme stimulation; *Alteration of cell membrane permeability;* interactions with neurotransmitters
A patient receiving Valium for sedation, instead becomes agitated. Such an adverse reaction would be described as: Idiosyncratic
Using one drug to enhance the effect of another is an example of: Potentiation
Interactions with neurotransmitters usually refers to which types of drugs? Sedatives and analgesics
Which drugs alter the cell membrane permeability? Antiarrythmics
In competitive inhibition what is competing? Agonists and antagonists
What type of drug interaction indicates that 2 or more meds work together more powerfully than they would alone? Synergistic
Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant, caffeine is a stimulant. The biological interaction of these two drugs would demonstrate: Physiologic antagonism
Cell membrane stabilizing drugs operate on: Ion shifts in and out of cells
Which type of drugs operate on nerve conduction via neurotransmitters: Serotonin, Benzodiazepines
What works on protein synthesis in the ribosomes Synthroid
What is responsible for biotransformation in the liver? CYp450
Competitive Inhibition The effect of one drug canceling out the effect of another
Give an example of mutagenic two drugs given together cause birth defects
What is it called when two drugs together cause a paradoxical reaction? Idiosyncratic
Give an example of drug synergy One drug potentiates or enhances the effect of another drug
Epinephrine binds to an adrenergic receptor in the heart. After a period of time the cell nucleus responds to prolonged overstimulation which caused the receptors to be withdrawn into the cell by endocytosis. What is this called Down regulation
What is deamination? The break down of proteins into enzymes
True or False: Net activity of a drug depends on its affinity for the receptor True- Receptors have a lock shape for a certain key
Second messenger cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate is required for the action of: Water soluble drugs
An adrenergic agonist would: Stimulate sympathetic nervous system receptors
A calcium channel agonist would: Block the movement of calcium ions into the cell
Stacking means: The delayed, cumulative effect of repeated doses of a drug
Dig toxicity is a constant concern with Digitalis because Digitalis: Has a narrow Therapeutic Index
A severe allergic reaction involving more than one organ system is Anaphylaxis
What type of drug interaction indicates that one medication may reverse the effect of another? Antagonistic (like chewing gum in a lock; the key wont work anymore)
Created by: ICVT2b