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Chapter 9

Who was Chandragupta Maurya(320 BC)? Founded Maurya dynasty and began conquering from Bactria to Ganges.
What was the Arthashastra? Was an ancient Indian economic, military, and political strategical book. Written by Chanakya, teacher and guardian of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
Who was Ashoka Maurya(268-232 BC)? Reigned the Maurya Dynasty at its highest peak. He conquered the kingdom of Kalinga and established a capital at Pataliputra. Ruled an organized bureaucracy and his policies were recorded on rocks.
How did the empire revive after Ashoka's death? Bactrians(greek-speaking) ruled northwest India for two centuries. A group of Asian nomads, Kushans, ruled from 1-300. The most important reign was Emperor Kahsika's(78-103) because of his crucial role on Silk Road trade network.
What was the Gupta Dynasty(375-415)? A small dynasty founded by Chandra Gupta, and was more decentralized than the Maurya. It was invaded by White Huns and become completely weak by fifth century.
What did Indian Towns do(600 BC)? They provided products, luxury goods, and marketplaces. They traded with Persia, China, Indian Ocean basin, Indonesia, southeast Asia, Mediterranean basin.
How was society in India? Trade and commerce created a caste system with groups called jati, where artisans, merchants, and craftsmen appeared. Vaishyas and shudras were high class. There were patriarchal families, female subordination, and child marriage.
Who was Vardhamana Mahavira(500 BC)? Founded Jain religion, based on the ethics of the Upanishads(universe has a soul). They practice ahimsa, a principle to live nonviolent and strive to live an unselfish life to attain a state of bliss. No social distinction.
Who was Siddharta Gautama(563-483 BC)? Founder of the Buddhism and became the Buddha. He gave up his comfortable life to search for the cause of suffering. Received an elighqment under the bo tree and organized followers into a community of monks
What is the dharma? Is the Buddhist doctrine, states the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path are the way to end suffering, which is caused by desire. Nirvana and personal salvation are the religious goal.
How did Buddhism become famous? It was less demanding then Jainism, and it appealed to low castes because there was no social distinctions. The monarchal organizations spread it while conquering.
What was the Mahabharata? A collection of epic poems that honored the god Vishnu, the preserver of the world Ramayana. The story of Rama and Sita was changed into a Hindu one.
What was The Bhagavad Gita? A short poetic work, which included a dialogue between Vishnu and a warrior. Illustrates expectations of Hinduism and promise of salvation.
What were Hindu ethics? The basic idea is to achieve salvation by meeting caste responsibilities. People should lead an honorable life. By time, Hinduism end up replacing Buddhism.
Created by: alex3102