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Chapter 9

State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India

Mauryan dynasty: Chandragupta Maurya -Began conquest in 320s B.C.E. -Founded Maurya dynasty stretching from Bactria to Ganges. -Arthashastra, outlined administrative methods.
Ashoka Maurya -(reigned 286-232 B.C.E) -Conquered kingdom of Kalinga, 260 B.C.E. -Ruled through tightly organized bureaucracy -Established capital of Pataliputra. -Wrote policies on rocks and pillars and empire declined after his death cause of financial probs.
Empire under Guptas -Bactrians ruled in northwest India for 2 centuries. -Crucial role in silk road. -White huns invaded weakening the empire. -Large regional kingdoms dominated political life in India.
Town and Trade -Towns provided manufactured products/luxary goods. -Trade with Persia, China, Southeast Asia and more.
Family and caste system -Patriarchal family -Social groups of artisans, craftsmen, and merchants -social groups: sub castes or jati -values/beliefs of old Aryan society became irrelevant.
Janism -Vardhamana Mahavira (Jina) founder of Jain religion -Everything in universe has a soul -Purify ones selfishness to attain bliss -non violence towards all living things Don't recognize social hierarchies or caste of jati.
Mahayana Buddhism -Made heavy demands on individuals -Buddha became a God -"an enlighten being" -Monasteries began recieving gifts from wealthy. -Edu institutes promoted new faith
Popular Hinduism -Epics Mahabharata: Secular poem revised by Abraham scholars to honor Vishnu. - The Bhagavad Gita: Short poetic work, illustrated expectations of of Hinduism/promise of salvation
Hindu Ethics -Achieve salvation through meeting caste responsibilities -Lead honorable lives - Hinduism gradually replaced buddhism in India.
Created by: ursus3102