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Chapter 9

State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India

What was caused by the withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon? Magadha kingdom filled power vacuum.
What did Kautala's advice manual have? Arthashastra outlined administrative methods.
Who was the first emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya
Who conquered the kingdom of Kalinga? Ashoka Maurya
Where did Ashoka Maurya establish the capital? Pataliputra
Why did the Mauryan dynasty/empire decline? After the death of Ashoka, the empire declined due to financial issues
Who ruled in NW India for two centuries? Greek-speaking Bactrians
Who were the Kushans? Nomads from Central India that conquered and ruled circa 1-300 C.E.
Who founded the Gupta Dynasty? Chandra Gupta
What weakened the Gupta empire? Invasion of the White Huns
What were the gender relations? Patriarchal families, female subordination and child marriage.
Jati -Social groups, such as, artisans, craftsmen and merchants that were sub castes. -Maintained social order in India
Caste system: BRAHMINS -priests KSHATRIYAS -warriors and rulers VAISHYAS -skilled traders, merchants and minor officials SHUDRAS -unskilled workers
Who founded the Jain religion? Vardhamana Mahavira (5th century B.C.E.)
Jainist Doctrine and ethics: -Everything has a soul -In order to attain a state of bliss one must strive to purify selfish behavior
Principle of ahimsa: Nonviolence toward all things living
Who became the Buddha? Siddhartha Gautama
Where was Buddha's first sermon? Deer Park of Sarnath (around 528 B.C.E.)
Buddhist doctrine: -The dharma -suffering is caused by desire
What is the way to end suffering, according to Buddhism? The Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path
Religious goal of Buddhists: -Personal salvation -Nirvana -Perfect spiritual independence
Who was Ashoka? Converted to Buddhism and became an important patron.
Mahayana Buddhism -Buddha became a god -boddhisatva: "an enlightened being" -Educational institutions promoted new faith
What is Mahabharata? A secular poem revised by brahman scholars to honor the god Vishnu, the preserver of the world Ramayana, a secular story of Rama and Sita, was changed into a Hindu story
What is the Bhagavad Gita? A short poetic work that was a dialogue between Vishnu and warrior and illustrates expectations of Hinduism and promise of salvation.
Hindu ethics: -Achieve salvation through meeting the responsibilities of the caste and lead honorable lives
Created by: alexis3102