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Chapter 5

Vocabulary, Chronology, and Pirate Chart

TermDefinition
Yao King Yao was a towering figure, sometimes associated with a mountain, who was extraordinarily modest, sincere, and respectful.
Shun King Shun succeeded Yao and continued his work by ordering the four seasons of the year and instituting uniform weights, measures, and units of time.
Yu Most dashing of the sage-kings was Yu, a vigorous and tireless worker who rescued China from the raging waters of the flooding Yellow River
Xia Among the most important were those of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dy- nasties, which progressively brought much of China under their authority and laid a political foundation for the development of a distinctive Chinese society.
Shang the Shang dynasty left written records as well as mate- rial remains, the basic features of early Chinese society come into much clearer focus than they did during the Xia.
Zhou Chinese politics and statecraft become more clear in the practices of the Zhou dynasty, which succeeded the Shang as the preeminent political authority in northern China.
Chu the powerful state of Chu, situated in the central region of the Yangzi, governed its affairs autonomously and challenged the Zhou for su- premacy.
"Mandate of Heaven" More specif- ically, heavenly powers granted the right to govern—the “mandate of heaven”—to an especially deserving individual known as the son of heaven.
Legitimacy Legitimacy is defined as the lawfulness or authenticity of something
Conspicuous attracting notice or attention.
Mariners a chinese sailor
Scribes Chinese scribes may have used written sym- bols to keep simple records during Xia times, but surviving evidence suggests that writing came into extensive use only during the Shang dynasty.
Secular denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.
Yangzi The Yangtze River, known in China as the Chang Jiang or the Yangzi, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world
Yellowriver a river flowing from W China into the Gulf of Bohai. 2800 miles (4510 km) long.
Period of the Warring States 403–221 B.C.E.
In what period did the Zhou dynasty happened? 122–256 B.C.E.
In what period did the Shang dynasty happened? 1766–1122 B.C.E.
In what period did the Xia dynasty happened? 2200–1766 B.C.E.
In what period did the Yangshao society happened? 5000–3000 B.C.E.
Political: Xia The Xia Dynasty was one of the first efforts to organize public life in China mostly in a large scale.
Interaction with Environment: Xia The Xia dynasty exercised power throughout the middle Yellow River by controlling the leaders of individual villages.
Religious: Xia China the patriarchal family emerged as the institution that most directly influenced in- dividuals’ lives and their roles in the larger society.
Arts And Architecture: Xia Pottery bowl from the early Yangshao era excavated at Banpo, near modern Xi’an.
Technology: Xia Bronze metallurgy went to China from southwest Asia, together with horses, horse-drawn chariots, carts, wagons, and other wheeled vehicles
Economics: Xia Control over progressively larger regions, although none of them embraced all the territory claimed by later Chinese dynasties.
Society: Xia Xia, Shang, and Zhou dy- nasties, which progressively brought much of China under their authority and laid a political foundation for the development of a distinctive Chinese society
Political: Shang Shang China included advisors, ministers, craftsmen, and metalsmiths, who in their various ways helped Shang rulers shape policy or spread their influence throughout their realm.
Interaction with Environment: Shang Chinese scribes may have used written sym- bols to keep simple records during Xia times, but surviving evidence suggests that writing came into extensive use only during the Shang dynasty.
Religious: Shang Shang dynasty left written records as well as mate- rial remains, the basic features of early Chinese society come into much clearer focus than they did during the Xia.
Arts and architecture: Shang Shang rulers clearly had abundant military force at their disposal.
Technology: Shang Fu Hao’s resting place is the only tomb at Yin to escape the no- tice of grave robbers—perhaps because it was located in the Shang palace rather than in the cemetery that held other royal tombs.
Economics: Shang Though originally chosen for political and military reasons, in each case the capital also became an important social, economic, and cultural center.,
Society: Shang Xia, Shang, and Zhou dy- nasties, which progressively brought much of China under their authority and laid a political foundation for the development of a distinctive Chinese society
Political: Zhou The principles of ancient Chinese politics and statecraft become more clear in the practices of the Zhou dynasty, which succeeded the Shang as the preeminent political authority in northern China.
Interaction with environment: Zhou The Zhou dynasty saw a development of sword design that resulted in longer, stronger, and more lethal weapons.
Religious: Zhou Zhou forces seized the Shang capital of Yin, beheaded the king, and replaced his administration with their own state in 1122 B.C.E.
Arts and Architecture: Zhou The iron swords depicted here reflect the political instability and chronic warfare of the late Zhou dynasty. 
Technology: Zhou The Zhou kings were not able to control the production of bronze as closely as their Shang predecessors had, and subordinates built up stockpiles of weapons.
Economics: Zhou The royal court moved east to Luoyang in the Yellow River valley, which served as the Zhou capital until the end of the dynasty.
Society: Zhou Xia, Shang, and Zhou dy- nasties, which progressively brought much of China under their authority and laid a political foundation for the development of a distinctive Chinese society