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Unit 4 Review

French Revolution, Romanticism, and the Latin American Revolution

TermDefinition
Louis XVI King of France who was faced with a failing economy, war debt and an increasingly powerful Estates-General. He was guillotined during the French Revolution.
Maximilian Robespierre A powerful radical who later became the leader of France. He headed the Committee of Public Safety. It put “enemies of the Revolution” to death.
Declaration of the Rights of Man This French document, inspired by the American Declaration of Independence, guaranteed citizens equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.
Storming of the Bastille On July 14, 1789, an angry crowd attacked a Paris prison and got gunpowder for their weapons in order to defend the city. French Independence Day today.
The French Revolution Refers to the time in French history between 1789 and 1799 when the government and ideas about how France should be ruled changed many times
Inflation The rise in the price of goods while the value of money stays the same.
2nd Estate French societal and political division (estate) consisting of nobles.
American Revolution Americans put into practice the ideas of the Enlightenment by fighting against the corrupt British rule during this period from 1775-1783; the French aided the American colonists
Secular Society no longer tied to church as the authority
Reign of Terror Period in French history when thousands were killed during Robespierre’s rule, which began in 1793 and ended in July 1794.
Napoleon Bonaparte Successful general who was able to keep France free from government-protesting mobs inside France and invading armies outside of France. He seized control as dictator through a coup d’etat in 1799.
National Assembly A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
Coup d'etat Overthrow of the government, generally by force.
Marie Antionette Controversial Austrian Wife of King Louis XVI
Democratic Ideas Ideas about law and politics during the “Age of Reason” that emphasized when it was acceptable to overthrow a corrupt government. Inspired many revolutions.
1789 The year that marks the beginning of the French Revolution. This conflict officially begins with the Storming of the Bastille.
Guillotine Beheading machine used during the Reign of Terror.
Committee of Public Safety This organization was created by Robespierre; it’s primary purpose was to “try” and execute enemies of the Revolution.
Estates General The legislative ruling body of France consisting of the three estates; each estate had 1 vote.
First Estate French societal and political division or estate consisting of the Roman Catholic high clergy (religious officials).
Nationalism Loyalty to one’s country rather than to one’s king
Third Estate French societal and political division (estate) consisting of mostly well-off merchants and skilled workers who lacked the status of nobles, city workers, peasants or farm workers. Also included the lower clergy, such as local priests and ministers.
Latin American Revolutions The period of time when the central and South American colonists (of mostly Spain, but also France and Brazil) worked towards becoming independent nations
Viceroys Only those colonists that were born in Spain could have this title.
Slaves and Native Americans This group was at the bottom of the Encomienda system.
Mulatto Class in the encomienda system comprising of Mixed Spanish and slave
Encomienda System A legal system used mainly by the Spanish during their colonization of the Americas. The Spanish granted a person a number of natives to protect and instruct in Spanish and the Catholic faith.
Peninsulares The native Spanish-born at the top of the Encomienda system
Mestizo Part of the encomienda system comprising of Mixed Spanish and Native American
Creole Those with Spanish parents that were born in the colonies; this group led many of the Latin American Revolutions
Monroe Doctrine This stated that the United States would not tolerate any European nations interfering in the Western Hemisphere, while also recognizing Latin American nations as independent.
James Monroe U.S. president who issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823.
Jose de San Martin A colonial soldier for Spain in its Peninsular War with France who would later fight to liberate his native Argentina as well as Chile from Spain. He also aided in the liberation of Peru.
Toussaint L'Overture Led slaves in Haiti who rebelled and defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, then France, and finally Britain; he abolished slavery and eventually won independence.
Miguel Hidalgo Started the Mexican independence movement of mostly farm peasants. He is referred to as the “Father of the Nation.”
Simon Bolivar A native South American who led revolutionary efforts in much of the northern areas of South America, specifically Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
Northern South America Area mostly liberated by Simon Bolivar
Southern South America Area mostly liberated by Jose de San Martin
Mexico n 1521, the Spanish conquered and colonized this territory from its base in México Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It becomes ________ following recognition of the colony's independence in 1821.
Haiti When it gained independence in 1804, it was the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt.
Romantic Painting Painting style that emerged out of the age of revolutions that showed classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits).
Miguel de Cervantes He is credited with writing the first novel, Don Quixote, during the Enlightenment
Eugene Delacroix This French Romantic painter is most famous for his painting called Liberty Leading the People.
Novel A long story with plot, characters, dialogue, etc., was developed during the Enlightenment but was widely read during the French and Latin American Revolutions
Don Quixote The first novel. Tells the story of an elderly man who becomes so enamored by old stories of brave knights that he seeks out his adventures
Liberty Leading the People French painting which is a glorification and personification of the idea of liberty.
Romanticism New school of art and forms of literature that emerged during the time of the French and Latin American Revolutions. Emphasis on nature, nationalism, and emotion
Created by: oliverpruittmc