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Chapter 8

The Unification of China

Question or TermAnswer or Definition
Who was Confucius? Educator and political advisor. His disciples put together his sayings in the Analects.
Junzi "Superior individuals"
Analects Book of Confucius' teachings and sayings that has influenced the political and cultural traditions of China.
Confucius thoughts... Character: moral & ethical Practical: restoration of political & social order
Edited & put together Zhou classics for what? In order for his disciples to study.
Ren Sense of humanity, kindness and benevolence.
Li Sense of propriety, courtesy, respect and deference to elders
Xiao Devoted piety and family obligation
Spokesman for the Confucian school... Mencius
How did Mencius advocate the government? Mencius advocated the government through benevolence and humanity.
This person believed that humans pursue their own interests selfishly: Xunzi
What did Xunzi prefer? He preferred harsh social disciple in order to have order in the society. Xunzi also supported moral education and good behavior in public.
What preference did Doaism have? The Daoism prefernce was philosophical reflection and introspection, harmonizing with nature.
Who was the founder of Daoism and what did he write? Laozi was the founder of Daosim and he wrote the Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue)
Compendium of Daoist philosophy: Zhuangzi
The Dao is known as the way of what? The way of nature and they way of the cosmos.
Elusive concept: Eternal principle governing all the workings of the world
What should humans do? Humans should fix their behavior to the nature of the Dao.
What causes chaos in the world? Ambition and activism cause chaos.
Wuwei doctrine: Disengagement from worldly affairs, having a simple life.
Political implications: Counterbalance to Confucian activism
Practical and efficient doctrine: No concern with ethics, morality and the principles governing nature:
Shang Yang: Chief minister of Qin & legalist writer
Han Feizi: Combined legalist ideas in essays.
Legalist doctrine: -Agriculture & military force were the strengths of the state -Put off education, the arts and commerce -Made the self-interest of the people useful for the needs of the state -Minor infractions=harsh penalties -Put an end to the Warring States
Qin Dynasty (west China) adopted legalist policies -Encouraged agriculture--> strong economy -Organized powerful army w/ iron weapons -Conquered states & in 221 B.C.E. it unified China
Who was the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty? Qin Shihuangdi (221 B.C.E.)
Qin Shihuangdi -Centralized imperial rule -Connecting & extending the Great Wall project -Due to criticism against the Qin, he buried 460 scholars alive -Burned all books except the ones with efficient value
Tomb of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty: -Underground palace w/life-size terra-cotta figures
Collapse of the Qin Dynasty: -Ill will due to massive public works -207 B.C.E.: rebels overwhelmed the Qin court
Liu Bang -Early Han Dynasty -Restored order by 206 B.C.E.
Early Han Policies -In between Zhou decentralization and Qin over-centralization -Centralization and expansion was emphasized by the Martial Emperor, Han Wudi
Han centralization -Built a bureaucracy to rule the empire -Built roads & canals -Levied taxes on agriculture, trade & craft industries -Monopolies on production of salt & iron -Confucian educational system to train bureaucrats
Former Han: Patriarchal social order -Women subordination
Admonitions for Women: Ban Zhao wrote this emphasizing humility, obedience, subservience & devotion to their husbands
Bulk of population were... Cultivators
Iron metallurgy Farming tools, utensils and weapons
What replaced silk and bamboo as writing material? Paper
From 220 B.C.E. to 9 C.E., what was the population growth? Twenty million to sixty million
What discouraged investment in manufacture and trade? Taxes and land confiscations.
What were social tensions caused by? They were caused by stratification between the poor and the rich.
Reign of Wang Mang -"socialist emperor" reforms the land -23 C.E.: overthrown by revolts
Yellow Turban Uprising Revolt caused by problems of land distribution
Collapse of Han -Central government paralyzed by the factions at court -Empire was dissolved and China was divided into regional kingdoms
Created by: alexis3102