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Chapter 4

Ancient India

Our understanding of Harappan society depends entirely on archeological discoveries of Harappan physical remains above the water table.
The inhabitants of Harappan society enjoyed a rich variety in their diet. Their food included wheat, barley, chicken, cattle, sheep, and goats.
In the sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, archeologists have found a high degree of standardization of weights, measures, architectural styles, and even brick sizes. Such standardization may suggest that there might have been a central authority powerful enough to reach all corners of society.
Archaeologists claim that there were sharp social distinctions in Harappan society, which can be illustrated by the people’s houses, ovens, and wells.
Harappan religion reflected a strong concern for fertility. We know this because of the similarities between the images of Harappan deities and the images of Hindu fertility deities.
By about 1700 B.C.E., the residents of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro began to abandon their cities because deforestation of the Indus River valley brought about ecological degradation.
The Aryans relating to or denoting a people speaking an Indo-European language who invaded northern India in the 2nd millennium BC, displacing the Dravidian and other aboriginal peoples.
The Indo-Europeans who migrated to the Indian subcontinent were primarily herders. utilized horses for transportation. judged wealth by the number of cattle. called themselves Aryans.
The period of Indian history from 1500 to 500 B.C.E. is called the Vedic age. It is so called because the four earliest religious texts were compiled in this period.
The Aryans’ term for their four original castes was varnas
The Indian caste system was a central institution that served to promote social stability.
One of the hymns in the Rig Veda offered a brief account of the origins of the four varnas (castes). It was said that the gods created the castes during the early days of the world so that brahmins and kshatriyas would lead their societies.
Which of the following is evidence of the subordination of women to men in Aryan society? patrilineal descent the Lawbook of Manu the practice of sati the fact that women had no responsibilities for religious rituals
Aryan religion during the early Vedic age was relatively unconcerned with ethics, but concerned itself more with ritual sacrifices and the god of war.
The Upanishads can be best characterized as the blending of Aryan and Dravidian values.
According to the teachings of the Upanishads, the highest goal of the individual soul was to attain the state of moksha.
According to the Upanishads, All these answers are correct.
According to the Rig Veda, the world was created when the gods sacrificed Purusha.
According to the teachings of the Upanishads, an individual should observe high ethical standards like honesty, self-control, and charity.
Believers in the Upanishads often are vegetarians. believe you should respect all living things, even animals and insects. believe that animals might be holding incarnations of unfortunate souls. believe humans should have compassion for the suffering of the souls in animals.
Created by: FidencioV3202