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HUG Chap 2

demography scientific study if population characteristics
overpopulation the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
ecumene portion of earths surface occupied by permanent human settlement
crude birth rate (CBR) total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
crude death rate (CDR) total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
natural increase rate (NIR) percent by which a population grows in a year. CBR-CDR converted to a percent
doubling time number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase
total fertility rate (TFR) number of births in society. average number of children a woman will have throughout her child bearing years
infant mortality rate (IMR) annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age compared with total live births
life expectancy measure the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
demographic transition change in a societys population
agricultural revolution the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
industrial revolution began in england. conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market
medical revolution medical technology invented in europe and north america diffused to less developed countries in africa, asia, and latin america
zero population growth (ZPG) a country reaches stage 4 of the demographic transition when the CBR declines to the point where it equals the CDR and the NIR approaches zero
population pyramid a countries population displayed by age and gender groups on a bar graph
dependency ratio number of people who are too young or old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years
census official count or survey of population
epidemiologic transition distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
epidemiology study of disease transition
pandemic (of a disease) widespread over a whole country or the world
sex ratio proportional distribution of the sexes in a population. number of males per 100 females
stage 1 name low growth
stage 2 name high growth
stage 3 name moderate growth
stage 4 name low growth
stage 1 CBR CDR high cdr high cbr low nir
stage 2 CBR CDR high cbr cdr drops sharply nir high
stage 3 CBR CDR cbr declines cdr stays low
stage 4 CBR CDR cbr low cdr low nir= zpg
malthusian theory the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food supplies
moral restraint only thing that can stop the malthusian theory
who is the malthusian theory named after? thomas malthus
when and where was the malthusian theory created? 1798 England
what book was the mathusian theory published in? An Essay on the Principle of Population
what stage society is the mathusian theory based on? stage 2
what do neo- malthusians believe? that thomas malthus was right, and things are even worse than he said
who are some neo-malthusians? Robert Kaplan, Thomas Fraser Homer-Dixon
what do malthusian critics believe? malthus didn't see possibilism, and lots of people being a good thing
what do marxists believe? that wealth should be distributed to meet peoples basic needs, and that the issue is not that there isn't enough, just people taking more than they need.
stage 1 epidemologic transition name pestilence and famine
what is pestilence infectious contagious rap spreading epidemic diseases
what is famine lack of food
who and when formulated the epidemologic transition abdel Omran 1971
stage 2 epidemologic transition stage receding pandemics
why was stage 2 receding pandemics? because of the industrial revolution and improved hygeine and medicine
why was stage 1 pestilence and famine? because hygeine and medicine not advanced, no technology, instability in food, and the black plague
stage 3 name epidemiologic transition degernerative and human related diseases
degenerative overtime/ chronic disorders with aging
example of diseases in stage 3 epidemiologic transition cancer, cardiovascular
stage 4 name epidemiologic transition delayed degenerative diseases
why is stage 4 epidemiologic transition delayed degenerative diseases? because it is the same as stage 3 but the treatments have been more developed and people live longer with them
stage 5 epidemiologic transition reemergance
why is stage 5 reemergance? it states that all the eradicated diseases will come back and kill large amounts of population
why will diseases reemerge evolution of diseases immune to cures, poverty because of no infrastructure and way to deal with disease, and improved travel because easier for disease to spread
who disagrees with Malthusian theory? Karl Marx, and Friederich Engels
where are the highest NIRs africa and southwest asia
where are the highest and lowest CBRs highest= sub-saharan africa and middle east lowest= europe
where are the highest and lowest TFRs highest= sub-saharan africa and middle east lowest=europe
not one of the four regions of the world that 3/4 of the population is in sub-saharan africa
what stage have we been in the longest on earth stage 1
where are the highest and lowest IMRs highest= sub-saharan africa lowest= western europe
life expectancy in africa low forties
life expectancy in europe, asutralia, north america, japan late seventies
what is europes CDR like? relatively high
how much of the worlds population is under age 15? 1/3
where were CBR declines rapid in 1980-90s? Middle East, Latin America, South Asia
how can CBR's be controlled? economic development and distribution of contraceptives
how many couples in north america and western europe use family planning methods? 3/4
what country has the highest rate of family planning? china
where are the lowest rates of family planning? sub-saharan africa
where were the first cases of the avian flu recorded? southeast asia
where are the highest rates of HIV infection? sub saharan africa
how much of earths surface do 3/4 of the world live? 5%
where are the highest population densities found? asia, europe, central america
where are the lowest population densities found? australia and north and south america
Created by: edenbreslauer
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