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chapter4 study guide

when did the Harrapan society begin? 3000 B.C.E
Where did the harappan society begin? Indus river valley.
What around it geographically? North india, Hindu Kush and Himalayas.
What did they cultivate? They cultivate barley and wheat.
Before 5000 B.C.E what did they cultivate? They cultivate cotton.
What complex society was in 3000 B.C.E.? Dravidians.
What were the main cities? Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
what was strongly emphasized by religion? fertility
what year did the Harappan society declined? 1900 B.C.E. onward
What led the subsistence crisis? Ecological degradation
What are cases of natural catastrophes? floods or earthquakes
When did the Population began to abandon their cities? 1700 B.C.E
when did the society almost entirely collapsed? 1500 B.C.E.
what did the Aryans Depended on? heavily on a pastoral economy
how did they orally transmitted works? the vedas
what was there language? Sanskrit
What was the daily language? Prakit
When was the The Vedic Age? 1500-500 B.C.E
What was there conflict in the boisterous period? conflicts with indigenous peoples
What did they Called indigenous people? dasas--"enemies" or "subject people"
who was the Aryans' war god and military hero? Indra
when and were the Aryan migrations in India? first Punjab and by 500 B.C.E. in northern Deccan
What did the social classes based on? skin color
What were the social classes called? varna that meant color
What were the Four main varnas? brahmins (priests), kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants), shudras (landless peasants and serfs)
how was Jati determine? subcastes, were determined by occupations
could Foreign peoples could find a place in society of the castes? yes
when did The Lawbook of Manu started? first century B.C.E.
what did the lawbook of manu contained? Dealt with moral behavior and social relationships
what did it advise men to do? to treat women with honor and respect
what were the women duties? to bear children and maintain the household
what Gods did they have?of the sun, the sky, the moon, fire, health, disease of the sun, the sky, the moon, fire, health, disease
what was the God Varuna about? ethical concern, cosmic order
Priests were specialists of the how did the ritual sacrifices? Priests were specialists
when did the Spirituality underwent a shift? afther 800 B.C.E..
What were The religious forums? dialogues between disciples and sages
what is Brahman? the universal soul
what was there Highest goal? to escape reincarnation and join with Brahman
what is Samsara? an individual soul was born many times
what is Karma? specific incarnations that a soul experienced
what is Moksha? permanent liberation from physical incarnation
what did Samsara and karma reinforced? caste and social hierarchy
how were Upanishads? spiritual and intellectual contemplations
what did they Taugh? to observe high ethical standards: discourage greed, envy, vice
What was their diet? vegetarian
why was it there diet be vegetarian? respect all living things
Harrapan: Political -Deposits and the rising water table are the causes of not having access to earliest remains. -No evidence of political system.
Harrapan:Interactions with environment -Having the indus river gave them a benefit in agriculture. -Through north India. -Hindu Kush -Himalayas gave them protection. -River gave them rich deposits. -Floods and earthquakes declined the society.
Harrapan:Religious -Believe in emphasizing fertility.
Harrapan:Arts/Architecture -Broad streets -Market places -Temples -Public buildings -Standardized weights, measures, architectural styles and brick sizes.
Harrapan:Technology -Fortified citadel -Large granary
Harrapan:Economics -Based on agriculture(Wheat,barley,cotton)
Harrapan:Society -Population abandon the cities in 1700 B.C.E. -Cultural tradition maintained after the society collapsed
Aryan:Political -Conflicts with indigenous people -The chiefdoms tough among themselves -Regional kingdoms -Social classes -Patriarchal/patrilineal society
Aryan:Interactions with environment -In India -Also in Punjab -Northern Deccan
Aryan:Religious -Indra:war god and military hero -Gods:sun,sky,moon,fire,health and disease -God Varuna:ethical concern and cosmetic order -Ritual sacrifices -Spirituality underwent -Religious language
Aryan:Technology -No writing but transmitted work in something called Vedas -Sacred language :Sanskrit -Daily language Drakit -Used iron language
Aryan:Economics -Pastoral economy -Developed agriculture
Aryan:Society -Conflict with indigenous people -Social classes based on skin color -Foreign could also join society -Religious was important for the people
Dravidian:Political -Aryan were trying to take over(End up mixing together)
Dravidian:Interaction with environment -South Asia -Indian subcontinent -Indus river
Created by: carla2019