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Chapter 4

P.I.R.A.T.E.S + Vocabulary + Chronology

Harappa - Politics not much evidence; most likely individual political centers; taxes by gain
Harappa - Interactions with environment / geography Indus River valley, annual flooding; sowed wheat and barley; domesticated animals; ECOLOGICAL DEGRADATION ~ deforestation & Sahara desert
Harappa - Religion had gods and goddesses of procreation
Harappa - Art and Architecture fortified citadels; experts in gold copper and bronze metallurgy
Harappa - Technology sophisticated sewage systems
Harappa - Economics agriculture; domestic and foreign trade
Harappa - Society cities by 300 BCE; social distinctions visible in housing
citadel a fortress used by the Harappan Society
Harappan of or relating to Harappa; Indus valley civilization.
venerated to treat someone with reverence; respect
pantheon a public building containing tombs or memorials of memorable ppl. (could be heroes, idols, gods) of a nation.
Aryans Nomadic pastoral Indo-European speakers
Rig Veda a book of 1028 hymns;made near 2nd millennium BCE
Indra god of many early societies in south Asia, warlike,
Raja an Indian king/prince
caste system a form of social stratification, in this case by class
Varnas each of four Hindu castes: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras
Brahmins The highest caste; priesthood
Kshatriyas The second caste; military and government
Vaishyas The third caste; merchants and farmers
Shudra The fourth and lowest caste; workers
"Law book of Manu" proper moral behavior and social relationships + sex and gender relations; women should be respected but they should follow orders from men
brahmin/ Brahman the universal soul; everyone is part of one big universal soul; eternal and unchanging foundation;
doctrine a belief or many beliefs set up by a church/religion
karma destiny/fate; the sum of all you actions will determine your fate
Dravidian a member or something relating to the Dravidian language
Aryan - Politics chiefdoms; no official government usually king and council of elders ~ eventually became state governments with city reps.
Aryan - Interactions with environment / geography lived by Indus River; annual flooding; sowed wheat and barley; domesticated animals; ***ecological degradation; deforestation
Aryan - Religion had gods and goddesses of procreation
Aryan - Art and Architecture fortified citadels; experts in gold, copper, and bronze metallurgy
Aryan - Technology sophisticated sewage systems , warlike chariots
Aryan - Economy agriculture + domestic and foreign trade
Aryan - Society social distinctions evident in housing; had built cities by 300 BCE
Dravidian - Politics "led" by Indra; clashed with Aryans often; municipal government; religion helped people remove doubt of unfair social hierarchy
Dravidian - Interactions with environment / geography agricultural society; Indus River
Dravidian - Religion Upanishads: religious teachings; believed in nature spirits which influenced hinduism later on
Dravidian - Art and Architecture houses of many floors; all similar to Aryan (gold copper and bronze metallurgy
Dravidian - Technology metallurgy, iron tools; sewage systems
Dravidian - Economy Agricultural mostly; trading and cats and artisans
Dravidian - Society Samsara abd Karma reinforced caste and social hierarchy
Beginnings of agriculture in south Asia 8000–7000 B.C.E.
High point of Harappan society 2500–2000 B.C.E.
Beginning of Harappan decline 1900 B.C.E.
Beginning of Aryan migration to India 1500 B.C.E.
Vedic age 1500–500 B.C.E.
Composition of the Rig Veda 1400–900 B.C.E.
Early Aryan migrations into the Ganges River valley;Emergence of varna distinctions 1000 B.C.E.
Formation of regional kingdoms in northern India 1000–500 B.C.E.
Composition of the principal Upanishads 800–400 B.C.E.
Establishment of first Aryan cities in the Ganges valley 750 B.C.E.
Early Aryan migrations to the Deccan Plateau 500 B.C.E.
Created by: mia3202