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Chapter 7 - Persia

Empires of Persia

TermDefinition
Achaemenids First Empire of Persia founded by Cyrus the Great
Medes An ancient Iranian people who lived in an area as Media and spoke the Median language
Pasargardae Capital of the Achaemenid Empire
Cambyses II Elder son of Cyrus the Great who was the second king of the Achaemenid Empire
Darius I Third king of Persia during 522-486 BCE and known as the greatest of the Achaemenian kings
Satrapies Provinces governed by a satrap
Persian Royal Road An ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king, Darius, which ensured a safe trip
Commonwealth A political Community founded for the common good
Battle of Marathon Occurred during the first Persian invasion of Greece was a fight between the citizens Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artapehernes
Alexander of Macedon King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire
Seleucids a Hellenistic state ruled during the Seleucid dynasty found by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire
Parthians a historical region located in North-Eastern Iran, being the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty
Mithradates I King of Pontus and Armenia Minor
Ctesiphon capital city of the Parthian and Sasanian Empires
Sasanids the last Iranian Empire ruled by the Sasanian dynasty
Zoroastrianism religion ascribed to the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster; one of the oldest religions, combines cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism
Ahura Mazda the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism
Magi a term to denote followers of Zoroastrianism
Avesta a library, containing different scared texts which were written during a very long period in different languages
Gathas 17 hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra and are the most scared texts of the Zoroastrian faith
Manichaeism major religion that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani, an elaborate dualistic cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light and an evil, material world of darkness
Before 1000 BCE Medes and Persians migrated from central Asia to Persia
558-530 BCE Cyrus the Achaemenid became king and gain control of all Iran as well as established a vast empire from India to borders of Egypt throughout his rule
521-486 BCE Darius became king and had the largest extent of empire; a diverse empire that had seventy ethnic groups
New Capital during 520 BCE Persepolis
530-522 BCE Cambyses ruled and conquered Egypt during his time as king
Achaemenid administration and officials Governors assigned to each of the 23 provinces by central government and officials were picked from the local population
Power of the Satraps Replaced irregular tribute payments with formal taxes, standardized coins and laws, and major communications systems were achieved like Persian Royal Road and postal stations
Decline and Fall of Achaemenid Empire Commonwealth established = stability and jobs // Xerxes reigned, causing changes in cultural tolerance, which created ill will and rebellions
500-479 BCE Persian Wars - rebellion of Ionian Greeks and rulers failed to stop them that lasted 150 years
Seleucid Empire ruler Seleucus inherited most of what remained of the Achaemenid when previous leader died, continued with the same system of administration
Created by: Michelle3102