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Chapter 4

Harappan 1. earliest urban society in India that brought wealth and power 2. has a lack of written records
Harappan Politics 1.Unknown evidence because civilization disappeared 2.No royal rule or any authority 3. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro had tax centers
Harappan interactions with Environment and geography 1. Indus River gave agricultural society and it also helped people harvest wheat,barley, and cotton 2.domesticated chickens and ate beef from domesticated animals 3. traded decorative items with resources
Harappan Religion 1. They were polytheistic and had nature deities 2. great concern for fertility
Harappan art and architecture 1. They had city walls,tax centers,public buildings,pools 2.beads for trading and writing was very complicated to comprehend
Harappan Technology 1. complicated writing 2. metal metallurgy
Harappan Economics 1. residential with broad streets 2.traded for gold,silver,copper,lead,gems, and precious stones 3.traded metals with ships
Harappan Social 1. agricultural economy and society 2. specialized labor 3. distinctions of wealthy houses
Dravidian 1. Dravidians are native speakers
Dravidian Politics 1.led by Indra 2.it had an municipal government
Dravidian interactions with Environment and geography 1.one main source was the Indus River 2. agricultural society
Dravidian Religion 1.they has religious teachings 2. believed in nature spirits which influenced hinduism
Dravidian art and architecture 1.had gold.copper,bronze and, metallurgy 2. the houses has many floors
Dravidian Technology 1.*sewage systems* 2. iron tools
Dravidian Economics 1.mostly agriculture 2. traded and artisans
Dravidian Social 1.both doctrines reinforced caste ans social hierarchy
Aryans 1. a herd of people who migrated to South Asia as a large number in 1500 b.c.e
Aryans Politics 1.ruled by kings and rulers 2.cultures spreads from Indus to the Ganges River 3. duty of the king was the protection of his subjects, property, and maintenance of peace
Aryans interactions with Environment and geography 1. establisment on small herding and agricultural communites 2. prized horses,also herds of cattle 3.consumed dairy products and beef
Aryans Religion 1.indian gods continue to be worshiped 2.Aryans bring new gods and scriptures called Vedas 3.combine to create Hinduism
Aryans art and architecture 1.stautes 2.paintings 3.temples symbolize and embody the gods and their powers
Aryans Technology 1. created iron tools, axes, also iron tipped plows 2. iron tipped plows cleared forests and established agricultural 3. stronger and more effective weapons
Aryans Economics 1.small self-sufficent agricultural communities 2.increased food productions (rice) 3.weapons 4.Barter system common 4.iron technology used as farm tools
Aryans Social 1.wealthy usually owned extensive hard of cattle 2.the Vedas brought about a new social structure 3.caste system limited social opportunities and determined who people could marry.
citadel 1.large buildings used for public gatherings,religious activities
venerated 1. having great respect for something 2.Harappans had great respect for god and goddess whom they associated with creation
pantheon 1. a temple designed for the emperor to make public appearances
Rig Veda 1. represented a priestly perspective on affairs 2. bed means "wisdom" or "knowledge"
Indra 1.indra is a Aryan god 2. Aryan praise Indra as a military hero who opened the way for the migrants to build a new society
Raja 1. a king who governed in collaboration with a council of village elders
caste system 1. determined the places that individuals and groups occupied in society 2. the word casta refers to a social class hereditary
Varnas 1. had an effect of enhancing the status and power of priestly and aristocratic classes 2. there is four different Varnas
brahmins 1. is one of the four Varnas 2. on of the most honorable human groups that would lead their societies 3.households used brahmins perform no fewer than five sacrifices per day
kshatriyas 1. was the Varnas of warriors and aristocrats 2.it's one of the most honorable human groups that would lead their societies
Vaishyas 1.is the third Varnas out of the four 2. its the Varnas of cultivators, artisans, and, merchants
Shudras 1. its the fourth Varnas 2.its the Varnas of landless peasants, and serfs
"Law book of Manu" 1.instructed proper moral behavior
brahman 1.an eternal, permanent foundation for all things that exit hence the only genuine reality 2.
doctrine 1. the two doctrines explain why individuals were born into their castes 2.the two doctrines are called "samsara" and the other is called "karma"
karma 1. its one of the two doctrines written 2.it was written to encounter the specific incarnations that souls experienced 3.those who had karma would suffer in a future incarnation
8000-7000 B.C.E Beginnings of agriculture in South Asia
2500-2000 B.C.E High point of Harappan society
1900 B.C.E Beginning of Harappan decline
1500 B.C.E Beginning of Aryan migration to India
1500-500 B.C.E Vedic age
1400-900 B.C.E Composition of the Rig Veda
1000 B.C.E Early Aryan migrations into the Ganges River valley
1000 B.C.E Emergence of varna distinctions
1000-500 B.C.E Formation of regional kingdoms in northern India
800-400 B.C.E Composition of the principal Upanishads
750 B.C.E Establishment of first Aryans cities in the Ganges valley
500 B.C.E Early Aryan migrations to the Deccan Plateau
Created by: kassandra2019