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Chapter 4

Vocabulary, Chronology, and Pirate Chart

Citadel a fortress that commands a city and is used in the control of the inhabitants and in defense during attack or siege.
Harappan of or relating to Harappa, especially the Bronze Age culture of the Indus valley civilization.
Venerated regard with great respect; revere.
Pantheon a public building containing tombs or memorials of the illustrious dead of a nation.
Aryans The Aryans were a herding people who spoke an Indo-European language and who migrated to south Asia in large numbers after 1500 B.C.E.
Rig veda a collection of some 1,028 hymns addressed to Aryan gods
Indra Aryan war god and military hero, as one who ravaged citadels, that most likely smashed dams, and destroyed forts the way age consumes cloth garments.
Raja Raja: A Sanskrit term related to the Latin word rex (“king”)
Caste system caste system served as a principal foundation of social organization
Varnas the Aryans most likely recognized four main Varnas
Brahmins brahmins (priests)
Kshatriyas kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats)
Vaishyas vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants)
Shudras shudras (landless peasants and serfs)
"Lawbook of manu" Lawbook of Manu reflected the society constructed earlier under Aryan influence.
Brahman participates in a larger cosmic order and forms a small part of a universal soul, known as Brahman.
Doctrine a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party, or other group.
Karma doctrine of karma, which accounted for the specific incarnations that souls experienced.
Dravidian Dravidian peoples had established neolithic communities throughout much of the Indian subcontinent.
In what period did the Early Aryan migrated to the Deccan plateau? During the period 500 B.C.E
In the first Aryan Cities, in what valley did they established during 750 B.C.E? In the Ganges Valley
In what period did the composition of the principal Upanishads happened? During the 800-400 B.C.E
In the northern India what kingdoms formatted during 1000-500 B.C.E? The regional kingdoms
What kind of distinctions emerged during 1000 B.C.E? Varna Distinctions
In what river did the Early Aryan migrated during 1000 B.C.E? Into the Ganges River Valley
What period did the composition of the Rig Veda happened? During 1400-900 B.C.E
In what period did the Vedic Age happened? During the 1500-500 B.C.E
During the period 1500 B.C.E, did the Aryan began to migrate to? India
In what period did the Harappan decline happened? During the period 1900 B.C.E
During 2500-2000 B.C.E, what society had a high point? Harappan Society
In what period did the Agriculture in South Asia began? During the period 8000-7000 B.C.E
Political: Harappan Harappan settled along the Indus Valley.
Interactions with Environment (Geography): Harappan Harappans deforested the Indus valley to clear land for cultivation and to obtain firewood.
Religious: Harappan It is impossible to characterize Harappan religious beliefs.
Arts and Architecture: Harappan Archaeologists have discovered samples of Harappan writing dating as early as 3300 B.C.E.
Technology: Harappan A variety of statues, figurines, and illustrations carved onto seals reflect a tradition of representational art as well as in gold, copper, and bronze metallurgy.
Economics: Harappan Harappan dwellings that rich and poor lived in very different styles.
Society: Harappan Society is the lack of deciphered: System of writing that used about focus hundred symbols to represent sounds and words, and archaeologist have discovered thousands of clay seals, copper tablets, and other artifacts with Harappan Inscriptions.
Political: Dravidian Dravidians and other peoples already lived in India.
Interactions with Environment (Geography): Dravidian Dravidian tongue related to those currently spoken in central and southern India.
Religious: Dravidian Dravidian peoples had established neolithic communities.
Arts and Architecture: Dravidian Dravidian agricultural techniques when they settled in villages.
Technology: Dravidian The hymns, songs, and prayers collected in the Rig Veda throw considerable light on Aryan values during this period.
Economics: Dravidian Dravidians of the Indus valley, attacking their cities and wrecking the irrigation systems that had supported agriculture in Harappan society.
Society: Dravidian Dravidian peoples built a complex society that dominated the Indus River valley until after 1900 B.C.E
Political: Aryan Aryans constitute an invasion or an organized military campaign.
Interactions with Environment (Geography): Aryan The Aryans entered india and practiced a limited amount of agriculture
Religious: Aryan The Aryans entered India with traditions and beliefs that met the needs of a mobile and often violent society.
Arts and Architecture: Aryan Aryans to replenish their supplies of horseflesh by importing animals from central Asia.
Technology: Aryan Aryan Craftsmen was more stronger and more effected weapon than those available to Harappan defenders.
Economics: Aryan Aryans practiced a limited amount of agriculture, but they depended much more heavily on a pastoral economy.
Society: Aryan Wealthy individuals in early Aryan society usually owned extensive herds of cattle.