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Citadel a fortress, typically on high ground, protecting or dominating a city.
Harappan of or relating to Harappa, especially the Bronze Age culture of the Indus valley civilization.
Venerated regard with great respect; revere.
Pantheon all the gods of a people or religion collectively.
Aryans relating to or denoting a people speaking an Indo-European language who invaded northern India.
Rig Veda The most ancient collection of Hindu sacred verses, consisting principally of hymns to various deities.
Indra Also known as Ĺšakra in the Vedas, is the leader of the Devas and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven in Hinduism.
Raja an Indian king or prince.
Caste System a class structure that is determined by birth.
Varnas each of the four Hindu castes, Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra.
Brahmins a member of the highest Hindu caste, that of the priesthood. (in Hinduism) the ultimate reality underlying all phenomena.
Kshatriyas a member of the second of the four great Hindu castes, the military caste.
Vaishyas a member of the third of the four Hindu castes, comprising the merchants and farmers.
Shudras a member of the worker caste, lowest of the four Hindu castes.
Law book of Manu dealt with proper moral behavior and social relationships, includ- ing sex and gender relationships.
Brahman a member of the highest Hindu caste, that of the priesthood.
Doctrine a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party, or other group.
Karma accounted for the specific incarnations that souls experienced.
Dravidian of, relating to, or denoting a family of languages spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, or the peoples who speak them.
Chronology: Beginnings of agriculture in south Asia 8000-7000B.C.E.
Chronology: High point of Harappan society 2500-2000B.C.E.
Chronology: Beginning of Harappan decline 1900B.C.E.
Chronology: Beginning of Aryan migration to India 1500B.C.E.
Chronology: Vedic age 1500-500B.C.E.
Chronology: Composition of the Rig Veda 1400-900B.C.E.
Chronology: Early Aryan migrations into the Ganges River valley 1000B.C.E.
Chronology: Emergence of Varna distinctions 1000B.C.E.
Chronology: Formation of regional kingdoms in northern India 1000-500B.C.E.
Composition of the principal Upanishads 800-400B.C.E.
Establishment of first Aryan cities in the Ganges valley 750B.C.E.
Early Aryan migrations to the Deccan Plateau 500B.C.E
Harappan: Political No evidence of political system.
Harappan: Interaction with Environment (Geography) Harappa and Mohenjo-daro natural catastrophes such as floods or earthquakes The Indus River: Runs through north India, with sources at Hindu Kush and the Himalayas
Harappan: Religious Religious beliefs strongly emphasized by fertility Polytheistic
Harappan: Arts and Architecture Standardized weights, measures, architectural styles, and brick sizes Broad streets, marketplaces, temples, public buildings Each city had a fortified citadel and a large granary
Harappan: Technology Each city had a fortified citadel and a large granary
Harappan: Economics Population began to abandon their cities Social distinctions, as seen from living styles
Harappan: Society Harappan society declined Complex society of Dravidians
Aryans: Political Ruled by a king and local rulers Many City states Duty of the king was the protection of his subjects, property, defense and maintenance of peace
Aryans: Interaction with Environment Aryan migrations in India: first Punjab and by 500 B.C.E. in northern Deccan Conflicts with indigenous peoples
Aryans: Religious War god, Indra Gods of the sun, the sky, the moon, fire, health, disease God Varuna: ethical concern, cosmic order Ritual sacrifices were more important than ethics Sacrifices, chants, soma
Aryans: Arts and Architecture No writing system, orally transmitted works
Aryans: Technology Used iron tools and developed agriculture
Aryans: Economics Depended heavily on a pastoral economy
Aryans: Society Women's duties: to bear children and maintain the household Advised men to treat women with honor and respect Subjected women to the control and guidance of men
Dravidian: Political Appointed Indra as there leader
Dravidian: Interaction with Environment South India
Dravidian: Religious Dialogues between disciples and sages Samsara: an individual soul was born many times
Dravidian: Arts and Architecture Created societies
Dravidian: Technology Developed the valley river
Dravidian: Economics Rich culture society
Dravidian: Society They acknowledged Egypt and Mesopotamia
Created by: andrea2019