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Ch. 4

World History

Citadel- a fortress
Harappan- the earliest urban society in India
venerated - respect towards someone important
Pantheon- a god, chief deitie of the aryans
Aryans herding people who spoke an indo-European language and who migrated to south Asia in large numbers
Rig Veda a collection of some 1,028 hymns adressed to aryan gods
Indra the leader of the aryans
Raja a Sanskrit term related to the Latin word rex who governed in collaboration with a council of village elders.
caste system largely determined the places that individuals and groups occupied in society
Varnas the four castes of the Vedic society
Brahmins a social superior priest
Kshatriyas a member of a second of the four hindu caste
Vaishas a member of the third of the four hindu caste
Shudras a member of the worker caste
"Law Book of Manu" dealt with proper moral behavior and social relationships
Brahman is an eternal, unchanging, permanent foundation for all things that exist hence the only genuine reality
Doctrine when you write ideas on a document
Karma accounted for the specific incarnations that souls experienced
Dravidian a family of languages
8,000- 7,000 B.C.E beginnings of agriculture in south Asia
2,500-2,000 B.C.E High point of Harappan society
1900 B.C.E Beginning of Harappan decline
1500 B.C.E Beginning of Aryan migration to India
1500-500 B.C.E Vedic Age
1400-900 B.C.E Composition of the Rig Veda
1000 B.C.E Early Aryan migrations into the Ganges River valley
1000 B.C.E Emergence of varna distinctions
1000-500 B.C.E formation fo regional kingdom i northern India
800-400 B.C.E Composition of the principal Upanishads
750 B.C.E establishment of the first Aryan cities in the Ganges valley
500 B.C.E Early Aryan migrations to the Deccan plateau
Harappan Interactions Neolithic villages in Indus River valley by 3000 B.C.E.
Harappan Political no evidence of a political system
Harappan Religious Religious beliefs strongly emphasized fertility
Harappan architecture Wheat and barley were cultivated in Indus valley
Harappan Technology Standardized weights, measures, architectural styles, and brick sizes
Harappan economy Cultivated cotton before 5000 B.C.E.
Harappan social Complex society of Dravidians, 3000 B.C.E.
Aryan political In caste system, social mobility difficult but still possible
Aryan interactions Aryan migrations in India: first Punjab and by 500 B.C.E. in northern Deccan
Aryan religious main varnas, recognized after 1000 B.C.E. brahmins (priests), kshatriyas, vaishyas, shudras
Aryan achitecture No writing system, but had orally transmitted works called the Vedas
Aryan technology Used iron tools and developed agriculture
Aryan economy Depended heavily on a pastoral economy
Aryan social The meaning of caste: hereditary, unchangeable social classes
Upanishads political Samsara and karma reinforced caste and social hierarchy
Upanishads interactions Spirituality underwent a shift after about 800 B.C.E.
Upanishads religious the religious forums: dialogues between disciples and sages
Upanishads achitecture Ritual sacrifices were more important than ethics
Upanishads technology Taught to observe high ethical standards: discourage greed, envy, vice
Upanishads economy Sacrifices, chants, soma
Upanishads social Samsara and karma reinforced caste and social hierarchy
Created by: ErickRam2019