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Chapter 4

History Assignment

POLITICS Harappans: -political centers in city-states -political authority -collection and redistribution of taxes Dravidians: -political parties -educational governments and institutions Aryans: -city-states -representatives in the government
INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT Harappans: -used rain and snow water from the mountains for any needs including water -"...deposits its burden of rich soil as it covers though lowlands and loses its forces." -Indus River --> communications, trade and travel through regions Dravid
RELIGION Harappans: -religion mainly base around fertility and procreation/polythesitic -afterlife and karma Dravidians: -polytheistic -karma Aryans: -Veds(songs,hymms,prayers)
ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE Harappans: -figurines/statues -illustrations carved onto seals--> reflects tradition Dravidians: -firgurines Aryans: -songs and poems -metallurgy
TECHNOLOGY Harappans: -irrigation systems -symbols represented words or other symbols Dravidians: -irrigation systems Aryans: -weapons of war -chariots -metallurgy
ECONOMY Harappans: -economical degradation(deforestation-erosion-reduced amounts of rainfall) -economic centers with taxes -trading Dravidians: -economical cent1ers -trading Aryans: -trading -pastoral economy,not much agriculture -metallurgy
SOCIETY Harappans: -thriving societies Dravidians: -social foundations Aryans: -social foundations -gender, skin color, class distinctions -social classes
Tier 1:Karma Destiny or fate, following as effect from cause
Tier 1:Venerated Regard with respect,revere
Tier 1:Caste System Class structure determined by birth.
Tier 1:Doctrine A belief or a set of beliefs held and taught by church, political party, or other group.
Tier 2:Harappan Of or relating to Harappa.
Tier 2:Pantheon All the gods of a people or religion collectively.
Tier 2:Aryans Relating to or denoting a people speaking an Indo-European language who invaded northern India in the 2nd millennium BC, displacing the Dravidian and other aboriginal peoples.
Tier 2:Indra Known as Ĺšakra in the Vedas, is the leader of the Devas and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven in Hinduism.
Tier 2:Raja An indian king or prince.
Tier 2:Varnas Each of the four Hindu castes, Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra.
Tier 2: "Law book of Manu" Guidelines formed based on Hindu beliefs
Tier 2: Dravidian Of, relating to, or denoting a family of languages spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, or the peoples who speak them.
Tier 3:Citadel A fortress, typically on high ground, protecting or dominating a city.
Tier 3:Rig Veda An ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.
Tier 3:Kshatriyas A member of the second of the four great Hindu castes, the military caste. The traditional function of the Kshatriyas is to protect society by fighting in wartime and governing in peacetime.
Tier 3:Vaishyas A member of the third of the four Hindu castes, comprising the merchants and farmers
Tier 3: Shudras A member of the worker caste, lowest of the four Hindu castes.
Tier 3: Brahman A member of the highest Hindu caste, that of the priesthood.
8000-7000 BCE Beginnings of agriculture in south Asia
2500-2000 BCE High point of Harappan society
1900 BCE Beginning of Harappan decline
1500 BCE Beginning of Aryan migration to India
1500- 500 BCE Vedic Age
1400-900 BCE Composition of Rig Veda
1000 BCE Early Aryan migrations into the Ganges River valley
1000 BCE Emergence of Varma distinctions
1000-500 BCE Formation of regional kingdoms in northern India
800-400 BCE Composition of the principal Upanishads
750 BCE Establishment of first Aryan cities in Ganges Valley
500 BCE Early Aryan migrations to the Deccan Plateau
Created by: sammy3202