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Chapter 4 Indus

Required for HW

What was the name of the river that the early Harappan society used for agriculture? Indus River
What were the most prominent cities in Harappan society? Harappa & Mojenho-Daro
What were these cities used for? Centers of political and economical growth
What was the time period in where the Harappan society reached its peak? Circa 2500-2000 B.C.E
What were some technological advances the Harappan society introduced to South Asia? A sophisticated sewage system, granery
What evidence of religion was found for the Harappan society? All evidence of religion was destroyed by the constant flooding of the Indus River
When did the Harappan society reach its period of downfall? Circa 1900-1500 B.C.E
Which group of people started to take over the Indus Valley river after the Harappan society fell? Dravidian people
Who else migrated towards the Indus River Valley? Aryans
Who were the Aryans? Group of pastoral, nomadic, Indo-European people who came to the Indus river valley and sought to thrive in the subcontinent of South Asia
What were the Aryan's main form of economy? They traded their cattle for goods.
What is the name of the age in where the Aryans had several conflicts with the neighboring people? The Vedic Age
What inspired the name of the Vedic age? A group of hymns and prayers referred to as the Vedas. The main one was the Rig Veda
Who was the main deity for the Aryans according to the Rig Veda? Indra, war legend
What are the Aryans well known for creating? The Caste System
What is the caste system? A social system that gives every individual a group of belonging that is hereditary and can't be changed
How did they use the Caste System in its early stages? Used skin color to tell where people would be. lighter skins were the higher ups in society, darker were lower.
How did this change when there was interracial bonds? They decided those of Aryan descent would be higher, and those of Dravidian descent would be lower.
Where did the idea of the Caste system originate? (First mentioning) In the Vedas, there was mentioning of a god who sacrificed himself to create a human society, with each individual belonging to a part of his body.
How many castes are there? Although there were many subcastes(Jatis), there were 5 main castes; Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vanishyas, Sudras, and Untouchables
What did Aryan's beliefs influence? Along with Dravidian ideals, they constructed the base of Hinduism, a widely practiced religion in India
What is a citadel? Core fortified zone of a city
What is a pantheon? a building in where the illustrious dead were buried or honored
What is the idea of Karma? It is a hindi belief that says that all of your actions in this existence determine your fate for future existences
Where did it come from? How did it change? The earliest use of Karma (1000-700 B.C.E) was unimportant, as it was used for a ritual or sacrifice of action. It later evolved after the Vedic age, where the thought of the being came into mind.
If the main castes are body parts, what body part represents the Brahmin? Why? The brahmin are the head, having the most important jobs, such as politics and religious jobs. These jobs require the mind, something that is essential to the society
What represents the Kshatriyas? Why? The Kshatriyas are the arms, the warriors, the ones that take what they need in societies best interest and help with self preservation
What represents the Vaishyas? Why? The Vaishyas, traders and workers, hold the society sturdy as the legs, using economy and society normal to avoid problems between the castes
The Sudras are represented by what? Why? The Sudras, the servants, are the feet of society. they allow for the society to move forward by taking some of the less important jobs and letting others succeed by removing those things
Since the Untouchables are not considered a main caste, what represents them? Although nothing may represent them, we can assume that they are less than the dirt that the society was built on, somewhat insignificant and expendable
All of these caste systems together, what do they represent? They represent the body of Brahma, the god who sacrificed himself to create a sophisticated human society and the ultimate explanation to any phenomena in the world.
What time period is considered the Vedic age? Circa 1500-500 B.C.E
When did the Aryans start to migrate into the Indus river valley? Circa 1500 B.C.E
After a long time, where did the Aryans start to migrate? Ganges River Valley
What time period involves their migrations to the Ganger River Valley Circa 1000 B.C.E
When did the caste system emerge? Circa 1000 B.C.E
The Aryans presumably created regional kingdoms in northern India, when did this happen? Circa 1000-500 B.C.E
After their migrations, the Aryans created cities near the Ganges Rives. When did these events occur? Circa 750 B.C.E
The Aryans later started to migrate to the Deccan Plateau, at what time did this start to happen? Circa 500 B.C.E
Created by: ariel3202