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World Studies

Chapter 5 India

What culture’s ideas did the social structure of ancient India reflect? The social structure of ancient India reflected the Aryan concepts of the ideal society.
What were the four varnas of ancient Indian society? The four varnas, or social groups, were the Brahmins, or priestly class; the Kshatriyas, or warriors; the Vaisyas, or merchants and farmers; and the Sudras, or peasants and servants.
Why were Sudras important to ancient India? Sudras were peasants and servants. Though they had limited rights, they constituted the bulk of ancient India’s population.
How did one’s jati, or caste, influence one’s life in ancient India? Caste determined what jobs people could have, whom they could marry, and what groups they could socialize with.
Why were Untouchables outside the caste system? The caste system was based on beliefs about the religious purity of people in each jati. Untouchables were deemed to be so impure they couldn’t even be admitted to society.
What beliefs merged and developed into Hinduism? Hinduism emerged as a blend of ancient Aryan beliefs and Dravidian religious practices.
What is Brahman? Brahman is the single force in the universe, also known as ultimate reality or the Great World Soul.
How do Hindus regard their gods? What do they seek through devotion to the gods? Many Hindus regard their many gods as simply different expressions of the one ultimate reality, Brahman. Through devotions at a Hindi temple, Hindus seek salvation. They also seek solutions to ordinary problems.
What is the concept of reincarnation? Reincarnation is the belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death.
How are karma and dharma important to the process of reincarnation? Dharma, or the divine law, requires all people to do their duty. Karma, or the force of a person’s actions in this life, determines how the person will be reborn in the next life.
How did early Hindus believe one could achieve oneness with ultimate reality? Early Hindus believed each person was part of Brahman, or ultimate reality; by achieving a sense of oneness with ultimate reality, one could return to Brahman after death.
What did the Hindus develop to help with this oneness with ultimate reality? Hindus developed four types of yoga, or training, to meet different needs; they include the path of knowledge, the path of love, the path of work, and the path of meditation.
What is the final goal of any path of yoga (which means “union,”)? The final goal is to leave behind the cycle of earthly life and achieve spiritual union between the individual soul and the Great World Soul, or Brahman.
Who was Siddhārtha Gautama? Siddhārtha Gautama was the son of a princely family in a small kingdom in the foothills of the Himalaya in what is today part of southern Nepal.
What new doctrine emerged in northern India in the sixth century? In the sixth century a new doctrine called Buddhism emerged in northern India and became a rival of Hinduism.
What did Siddhārtha Gautama set out to do in his last twenties? In his late twenties he set out to find a solution to the pain of illness, the sorrow of death, and the effects of old age on ordinary people.
What did Siddhārtha Gautama do when he couldn't yield the results he was seeking? After a period of asceticism did not yield results, he turned to meditation and found enlightenment.
Though it may have begun as an attempt to reform Hinduism, what did Buddhism become? Buddhism became a new religion dedicated to awakening and seeing the world anew.
What are the principals of Buddhism? The principles of Buddhism are grounded in the conviction that the pain and sorrow that afflict human beings can be set aside through wisdom.
Buddhism is believed to be a key step in achieving what? In Buddhism, bodhi, or wisdom, is a key step in achieving nirvana or union with ultimate reality.
What is the path of moderation? The Buddha taught a path of moderation he called the Middle Way, also known as the Eightfold Path to enlightenment.
Siddhārtha accepted the idea of reincarnation but rejected what? Siddhārtha accepted the idea of reincarnation but rejected the Hindu caste system and Hinduism’s multitude of gods.
Siddhārtha agreed to accept women into the Buddhist monastic order. What was their position/status? Over time, Siddhārtha agreed to accept women into the Buddhist monastic order, and though they held an inferior position, their status was higher in Buddhist societies than elsewhere.
What were the Buddha’s Four Noble Truths? (1 & 2) The Four Noble Truths—(1) Ordinary life is full of suffering; (2) This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves;
What were the Buddha’s Four Noble Truths? (3 & 4) (3) The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and to see others as extensions of ourselves; (4) The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path, or Middle Way, or moderation.
What steps composed the Eightfold Path? The Eightfold Path—(1) right view, (2) right intention, (3) right speech, (4) right action, (5) right livelihood, (6) right effort, (7) right mindfulness, and (8) right concentration.
After 400 B.C. India faced threats from whom? The Persians
The Persians extended their empire into where? Western India and then from the Greeks and Macedonians.
Under what leadership did the Persians extend their empire into Western India, and then from the Greeks and Macedonians? Under the leadership of Alexander.
Who was the Mauryan Empire’s greatest ruler? Aśoka
What did Aśoka expanded? Trade
What type of ideals did Aśoka use to rule? Buddhist ideals to rule.
After the collapse of what Empire, did the nomadic warriors seize power? The Mauryan Empire.
After the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, nomadic warriors seized power and established what new kingdom? The new Kushān kingdom.
Where did the new Kushān kingdom prospered though trade? Along the Silk Road.
Who actively engaged in mining and trade? The Guptas.
Who did the Guptas welcome in their mining and trade? The Guptas welcomed religious pilgrims.
The Guptas, actively engaged in mining and trade and welcomed religious pilgrims until what happened? Invasions by nomadic Huns weakened their empire.
List the cultural accomplishments of India? Lasting achievements in oral and written literature, stone architecture, and in the sciences and mathematics.
India’s literature includes religious chants and stories from where? epics such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and poems such as Kālidāsa’s The Cloud Messenger. The Vedas.
India’s literature includes religious chants and stories from the Vedas. What are the epics and poems? Epics such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and poems such as Kālidāsa’s The Cloud Messenger.
Stone pillars from Aśoka’s reign mark sites important to what? The Buddha’s life.
The stupas house Buddhist relics. The rock chambers house monks. What are these used for? They are used for ceremonies.
Indian mathematicians invented what? The Indian Arabic numerical system.
Indian mathematicians invented the Indian Arabic numerical system and introduced what concept? The concept of and symbol for zero, and were the first scientists known to have used algebra.
What is the importance of the Mahabharata to Indian culture and world culture? Mahabharata is the longest poem in any written language; it includes the Bhagavad Gita, which sets forth one of the key points of Indian society: one must not worry about success or failure but be aware only of the moral rightness of the act itself.
What is the time frame of the Mahabharata and what does is describe? It is set around 1000 B.C. and describes a war between cousins for control of the kingdom; the Bhagavad Gita is a sermon given by the god Krishna on the eve of a major battle.
Which Indian literary work is an epic that includes riddles about the meaning of life? Mahabharata
From whom did the Kushāns adapt the alphabet? The Greeks.
Which of the following Indian civilizations emerged as a classical civilization of lasting value? The Guptas.
Structures built in the form of burial mounds to house a relic of the Buddha were called.... stupas.
Under the reign of __________, India became a major crossroads in a trade network that extended from the rim of the Pacific to Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Sea. Aśoka
Located between influential cultures, the Kushān Empire was shaped by contact with China, Persia, and.... the Roman Empire.
What religion that originated in Persia was practiced in the Kushān Empire? Zoroastrianism.
What key lesson of Indian society does the Bhagavad Gita contain? In taking action, one must not worry about success or failure.
After the Arabs conquered large parts of India in the eighth century A.D., they.... adopted the Indian numeric system.
Created by: PLHSWorld1