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Unit 3 Review

Scientific Rev. Absolutism, and the Enlightenment

Causes of the Scientific Revolution Focus on careful observation People more willing to question Exploration encouraged people to change their beliefs
English scientist who first developed the scientific method Francis Bacon
Steps of the scientific method Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment, and Analysis
Nicolaus Copernicus Developed the Heliocentric Theory
Johannes Kepler Used mathematics to prove the Heliocentric Theory and developed the laws of planetary motion
Galileo Galilei Used a telescope to study the planets and discovered that Jupiter had moons. The Catholic Church forced him to recant his findings.
Isaac Newton Developed the laws of gravity
William Harvey Discovered the circulatory system
Edward Jenner Introduced the process of vacination
Effects of the Scientific Revolution Emphasis on Reason The Scientific Method Expansion of scientific knowledge
Geocentric Theory This theory states that the Earth is the center of the universe and everything else revolves around it
Heliocentric Theory This theory states that the Earth and all the other planets revolve around the sun.
Laws of Planetary Motion Kepler’s laws that described the elliptical orbit of the planets.
Absolute Ruler A king or queen with unlimited power who seeks to control all aspects of society.
Divine Right the idea that monarchs are God’s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Louis XIV An absolute monarch of France
Versialles A splendid palace built by Louis XIV.
Westernization Adopting social, economic, and political institutions of western European countries.
Serfs Russian peasants who were tied to the land they worked.
St. Petersburg A magnificent city built by Peter the Great in western Russia.
Peter the Great An absolute ruler who reformed the culture and government of Russia based on the institutions of Western Europe.
James I He was the king of England and Scotland. He made enemies of the Puritans when he refused to put their reforms into place.
Parliament The legislative branch of English government that contains two groups: The House of Lords and the House of Commons.
Charles I He led the Royalists during the English Civil War. He was the first reigning monarch to be publicly executed.
Civil War A war fought between two groups from the same country.
Royalists (Cavaliers) Followers of Charles I during the English Civil War.
Purtians A group of English Protestants who want to “purify” the Anglican Church of all Catholic influences.
Oliver Cromwell Leader of the Puritans during the English Civil War. He ruled England as a military dictator until his death in 1658.
Charles II He was “restored” to his father’s throne in 1660. During his rule, the English people gained the right of habeas corpus.
Restoration This is the name for the period when England was ruled by Charles II.
James II Brother to Charles II, he was a Catholic king in a Protestant country. He was overthrown by his son-in-law in the Glorious Revolution.
Mary and William The daughter and son-in-law of James II. They overthrew James to take control of the English throne in 1688.
Glorious Revolution William of Orange and his wife, Mary Stuart, took control of England away from Mary’s father. They established a constitutional monarchy that continues to today.
Enlightenment A movement in Europe in which thinkers tried to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
Thomas Hobbes He believed that people are selfish and wicked. Government exists to provide law and order. People give up some of their rights to ensure that governments have the power to protect them. Author of Leviathan.
John Locke Believed that people are reasonable and have a natural ability to take care of themselves. People are born with natural rights and the purpose of government is to protect those rights. Author of Two Treatise of Government.
Natural Rights People are born with these rights: The right to life, liberty, and property.
Philosophes One of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment.
Voltaire He believed that everyone has the right to freedom of religion and freedom of speech.
Baron de Montesquieu He believed the power of governments should be separated into different branches so that each branch could the limit the power of the others. Author of On the Spirit of Laws.
Jean Jacques Rousseau He believed that society corrupts us. He argued for a “social contract” that was an agreement between free individuals to create a society and a government. He believed that all people were born equal.
Baroque A style music which was popular from around 1600 to 1750. This music is typically dark, heavy, loud, and sounds quite big.
Classical A style of music which lasted from approximately 1750 to 1820. This music was lighter, more elegant, and at points delicate
Created by: moliver16