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LD AP World II Ch 17

LD AP World II Chapter 17 - Questions/Answers

What did the peoples of the New World lack? Immunity to diseases from the Old World.
What caused severe declines in the population of native peoples in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies? Smallpox, measles, diphtheria, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever and maybe pulmonary plague
Where may similar patterns of contagion and mortality be observed? In the English and French colonies in North America.
What did Europeans not use as a tool of building an empire? Disease
What did the spread of Old World diseases clearly undermine? The ability of native peoples to resist settlement and accelerated cultural change.
Where were European, Asian, and African food crops introduced to? The Americas
Where were American crops, including maize, beans, potatoes, manioc, and tobacco brought to? The Eastern Hemisphere.
What is thought to be one factor contributing to the rapid growth in world population after 1700? The introduction of New World food crops
What did the introduction of European livestock such as cattle, pigs, horses, and sheep influence? The environment and on the cultures of the native people of the Americas.
What did Old World livestock do? Destroyed the crops of some Amerindian farmers.
What did other Amerindians benefit from? The introduction of cattle, sheep, and horses.
How did the Spanish crown try to exert direct control over its American colonies? Through a supervisory office called the Council of the Indies.
What did the difficulty of communication between Spain and the New World lead to? A situation in which the Viceroys of New Spain and Peru and their subordinate officials enjoyed a substantial degree of power.
After some years of neglect and mismanagement, what did the Portuguese in 1720 appoint to administer Brazil? A viceroy
Describe the governmental institutions established by Spain and Portugal They were highly developed, costly bureaucracies that thwarted local economic initiative and political experimentation.
What did the Catholic Church play an important role in? Transferring European language, culture, and Christian beliefs to the New World.
Who did the Catholic clergy convert? Large numbers of Amerindians, although some of them secretly held on to some of their native beliefs and practices.
What did the Catholic clergy act to protect Amerindians from? Some of the exploitation and abuse of the Spanish settlers.
Bartolome de Las Casas A former settler turned priest who denounced Spanish policies toward the Amerindians and worked to improve the status of Amerindians through legal reforms such as the New Laws of 1542.
Why were Catholic missionaries frustrated? Amerindian converts blended Christian beliefs with elements of their own cosmology and ritual.
What happened when the Church redirected its energies toward the colonial cities and towns? The Church founded universities and secondary schools and played a significant role in the intellectual and economic life of the colonies.
What were the colonial economies of Latin America dominated by? The silver mines of Peru and Mexico and by the sugar plantations of Brazil. This led to a dependence on mineral and agricultural exports.
What was the economy of the Spanish colonies dominated by? The silver mines of Bolivia and Peru until 1680 and then by the silver mines of Mexico.
Effects of Silver mining and processing Required a large labor force and led to environmental effects that included deforestation and mercury poisoning.
In the agricultural economy that dominated Spanish America up to the 1540s, what did Spanish settlers use to exploit Amerindian labor? The forced-labor system of encomienda
What developed with the development of silver-mining economies? New systems of labor exploitation were devised. In Mexico, free-wage labor, and in Peru, the mita.
Mita system of Peru One-seventh of adult male Amerindians were drafted for forced labor at less than subsistence wages for six months of the year.
Effects of the mita system System undermined the traditional agricultural economy, weakened Amerindian village life, and promoted the assimilation of Amerindians into Spanish colonial society.
What did the Portuguese in the Atlantic islands and Brazil? The slave-labor sugar plantation system
Who did the Brazilian plantations used? First, Amerindian slaves and then the more expensive but more productive (and more disease-resistant) African slaves.
How did Sugar and silver play important roles? In integrating the American colonial economies into the system of world trade.
What did both Spain and Portugal try to do? Control the trade of their American colonies through monopolies and convoy systems that facilitated the collection of taxes but that also restricted the flow of European goods to the colonies.
What did the elite of Spanish America consist of? A relatively small number of Spanish immigrants and a larger number of their American-born descendants (creoles).
What did the Spanish-born dominate? The highest levels of government, church, and business, while the creoles controlled agriculture and mining.
Under colonial rule, what happened to the cultural diversity? Amerindian peoples and the class differentiation within the Amerindian ethnic groups both were eroded.
What did slaves and free blacks from the Iberian Peninsula participate in? The conquest and settlement of Spanish America; later, the direct slave trade with Africa led both to an increase in the number of blacks and to a decline in the legal status of blacks in the Spanish colonies.
At first, what did people brought from various parts of Africa retain? Their different cultural identities; but with time, their various traditions blended and mixed with European and Amerindian languages and beliefs to form distinctive local cultures
Slave resistance and rebellions Always brought under control, but runaway slaves occasionally formed groups that defended themselves for years.
What were most slaves engaged in? Agricultural labor and were forced to submit to harsh discipline and brutal punishments.
What did the overwhelming majority of males cause? Made it impossible for slaves to preserve traditional African family and marriage patterns or to adopt those of Europe.
In colonial Brazil, what did Portuguese immigrants control? Politics and the economy, but by the early seventeenth century Africans and their American-born descendants-both slave and free-were the largest ethnic group.
Castas The growing population of individuals of mixed European and Amerindian descent (mestizos), European and African descent (mulattos), and mixed African and Amerindian descent
What did Castas dominate? Small-scale retailing and construction in the cities, ran small ranches and farms in the rural areas, and worked as wage laborers; some gained high status and wealth and adopted Spanish or Portuguese culture.
What happened in attempts to establish colonies in Newfoundland (1583) and on Roanoke Island (1587)? Failure
What led to a new wave of interest in establishing colonies in the New World? In the seventeenth-century, hope that colonies would prove to be profitable investments, combined with the successful colonization of Ireland.
What did the Virginia Company establish? The colony of Jamestown on an unhealthy island in the James River in 1606.
What did Virginia (Chesapeake Bay area) develop into? As a tobacco plantation economy with a dispersed population and with no city of any significant size.
What did the plantations of the Chesapeake Bay area initially rely on? English indentured servants for labor.
What happened as life expectancy increased? Planters came to prefer to invest in slaves; the slave population of Virginia increased from 950 in 1660 to 120,000 in 1756.
What was Virginia administered by? A Crown-appointed governor and by representatives of towns meeting together as the House of Burgesses.
What did the House of Burgesses develop into? A form of democratic representation at the same time as slavery was growing.
What did Colonists in the Carolinas first prosper on? The fur trade with Amerindian deer hunters.
Consequences of the fur trade Included environmental damage brought on by over-hunting, Amerindian dependency on European goods, ethnic conflicts among Amerindians fighting over hunting grounds, & a series of unsuccessful Amerindian attacks on the English colonists in the early 1700s.
Who settled the southern part of the Carolinas? Planters from Barbados and developed a slave-labor plantation economy, producing rice and indigo.
In S. Carolina, what did enslaved Africans and their descendants form? The majority population and developed their own culture; a slave uprising (the Stono Rebellion) in 1739 led to more repressive policies toward slaves throughout the southern colonies.
What was Colonial South Carolina? The most hierarchical society in British North America.
In S. Carolina, what did a wealthy planter class do? Dominated a population of small farmers, merchants, cattlemen, artisans, and fur-traders who, in turn, stood above the people of mixed English-Amerindian or English-African background and slaves.
What did The Pilgrims, who wanted to break completely with the Church of England, do? Established the small Plymouth Colony in 1620.
What did the Puritans, who wanted only to reform the Church of England, do? Formed a chartered joint-stock company (the Massachusetts Bay Company) and established the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1630
The Massachusetts Bay colony Had a normal gender balance, saw a rapid increase in population, and was more homogenous and less hierarchical than the southern colonies.
The political institutions of the Mass. colony Were derived from the terms of its charter and included an elected governor and, in 1650, a lower legislative house.
What happened without the soil or the climate to produce cash crops? The Massachusetts economy evolved from dependence on fur, forest products, and fish to a dependence on commerce and shipping.
What did Massachusetts's merchants engage in? A diversified trade across the Atlantic, which made Boston the largest city in British North America in 1740.
Who was the first to colonize Manhattan Island? The Dutch and then taken by the English and renamed New York.
What did New York become? Became a commercial and shipping center; it derived particular benefit from its position as an outlet for the export of grain to the Caribbean and Southern Europe.
What was Pennsylvania first developed as? A proprietary colony for Quakers, but developed into a wealthy grain-exporting colony with Philly as its major commercial city. In contrast to rice-exporting SC's slave agriculture, who produced Penn grain by free family farmers
Describe patterns of French settlement Closely resembled those of Spain and Portugal; the French were committed to missionary work, and they emphasized the extraction of natural resources—furs.
What was French expansion driven by? The fur trade and resulted in depletion of beaver and deer populations and made Amerindians dependent upon European goods.
What did the fur trade provide Amerindians with? Firearms that increased the violence of the wars that they fought over control of hunting grounds.
What happened when firearms reached the horse frontier in the early eighteenth century? They increased the military power and hunting efficiency of the indigenous peoples of the American West and slowed the pace of European settlement.
What did Catholic missionaries, including the Jesuits, attempt to do? Convert the Amerindian population of French America, but, meeting with indigenous resistance, they turned their attention to work in the French settlements.
What did French settlements depend on? The fur trade, were small and grew slowly.
What did the slow pattern of settlement allow Amerindians in French America to do? Preserve a greater degree of independence than they could in the Spanish, Portuguese, or British colonies.
Where did The French expand? Aggressively to the West and South, establishing a second fur-trading colony in Louisiana in 1699.
What did the French expansion lead to? War with England in which the French, defeated in 1759, were forced to yield Canada to the English and to cede Louisiana to Spain.
What happened after 1713 Spain's new Bourbon dynasty undertook a series of administrative reforms including expanded inter-colonial trade? New commercial monopolies on certain goods, a stronger navy, and better policing of the trade in contraband goods to the Spanish colonies.
What did Spanish reforms coincide with? The eighteenth century economic expansion that was led by the agricultural and grazing economies of Cuba, the Rio de la Plata, Venezuela, Chile, and Central America.
What were The Bourbon policies detrimental to? The interests of the grazing and agricultural export economies, which were increasingly linked to illegitimate trade with the English, French, and Dutch.
Who did the new monopolies arouse opposition from? Creole elites whose only gain from the reforms was their role as leaders of militias that were intended to counter the threat of war with England.
What were the Bourbon policies also a factor in? The Amerindian uprisings, including that led by the Peruvian Amerindian leader José Gabriel Condorcanqui (Tupac Amaru II).
Describe the Amerindian rebellions Was suppressed after more than two years and cost the Spanish colonies over 100,000 lives and enormous amounts of property damage.
What did Brazil also undergo? A period of economic expansion and administrative reform in the 1700s.
What was economic expansion fueled by? Gold, diamonds, coffee, and cotton underwrote the Pombal reforms, paid for the importation of nearly 2 million African slaves, and underwrote a new wave of British imports.
What did the British Crown try to do in the latter half of the seventeenth century? Control colonial trading (smuggling) and manufacture by passing a series of Navigation Acts and by suspending the elected assemblies of the New England colonies.
How did Colonists resist the Navigation acts? By overthrowing the governors of New York and Massachusetts and by removing the Catholic proprietor of Maryland, thus setting the stage for future confrontational politics.
What was, during the eighteenth century, economic growth and new immigration into the British colonies accompanied by? Increased urbanization and a more stratified social structure.
Created by: desilva13