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Chapter 11

Ancient Greek Civilization

Darius Persian leader at the Battle of Marathon
Cavalry Soldiers on horseback
Infantry Foot soldiers
Ionia Greek city-state that was overtaken by Persia
2 effects of the invasion of Ionia Ionians rebellled and Athens soldiers burned Sardis
Battle of Marathon Battle between Athens and Persia; Athens won
Significance of the Battle of Marathon Ended the First Persian War
Battle of Thermopylae Battle between Sparta and Persia; Persia won
Significance of the Battle of Thermopylae Persians used Phoenician navy and Egyptian army to win
Xerxes Persian leader at the Battle of Thermopylae and Battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis Battle between navy of Athens (outnumbered) and Persian navy
Significance of Battle of Salamis Ended the Second Persian War and broke Persian naval power
King Leonidas Spartan leader at the Battle of Thermopylae
Themistocles Athenian leader at the Battle of Marathon
Sparta during the Golden Age Greek city-state with the strongest army
Athens during the Golden Age Greek city-state with the strongest navy
Delian League Alliance between Athens and other city-states
Peloponnesian League Alliance between Sparta and other city-states
5 Reasons why some city-states were upset with Athens Athens requested money to build its navy, Athens continued to collect taxes, Used Athenian money, Moved the treasury to Athens, Used league money to build the Parthenon
What did Sparta fear about Athens? Athens' power and Athens' democratic government
What caused the beginning of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta? Athens placed a ban on trade with Megara (a member of the Peloponnesian League)
How long did the Peloponnesian War last? 27 Years
Pericles Leader of Athens during the Peloponnesian War who ordered the people inside the walls to protect them
Siege a military tactic that forces the enemy to surrender by cutting off its food and other supplies
Long Walls a military tactic used by Athens that allowed Athens to receive supplies
Significance of the Long Walls Allowed Athens to hold on against Sparta for over a year
Plague a contagious disease that caused many Athenians to die during the siege
Order of events during the Peloponnesian War Athens attacks Sicily (ally of Sparta), Persia gave money to Sparta to build navy, Sparta defeated Athenian navy at Aegospotami, Sparta lay siege to Athens again, Athens surrendered
What did Athens have to give up after surrendering to Sparta, ending the Peloponnesian War? demolished the Long Walls and forced to give up their democratic government
How did the Peloponnesian War hurt all city-states? Thousands were killed, cities were destroyed, governments fell, trade dropped, fighting was occurring and city-states ignored Macedonia
Macedonia Kingdom in northern Greece that was gaining power while Athens and Sparta were fighting each other
King Philip King of Macedonia who united Greek city-states
Alexander Son of Philip; created a large empire
What was Alexander's first task after taking control? Had to secure Greece (they were starting to rebel)
What three things did Philip do to improve the Macedonian army? Phalanx system, used the sarissas, kept the men in formation during battle
What did Philip and Alexander allow the people to do in the conquered city-states that made the people not rebel? They allowed the people to keep their governments as long as they didn't rebel
Why did Alexander burn Thebes to the ground? As a warning to other city-states to cooperate
Why was Alexander given the nickname "the Great"? he created an empire in 11 years
What did Alexander's men do when they reached Asia? They began to mutiny against Alexander and refused to fight; headed back west
What happened to his empire after Alexander died? His generals divided his empire into separate kingdoms
General Ptolemy given the kingdom of Egypt to rule
Hellenistic Age time period when Greek culture advanced and spread throughout the world
Created by: katrina.maxson