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Tera's Clinical

LP3 Review

The term for a state of balance in the body or continual internal environment homeostasis
The term for the study of the taking of nutrients into the body and how the body uses them.. nutrition
Nutrition includes? ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food
____ involves the physical and chemical changes to food that the body makes to make it absorbable. digestion
_____is the transfer of the nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream. absorption
ingested substances that help the body stay in its homeostatic state can be called ____ nutrients
Nutrients can be divided into ___ groups. What are they? two, those that provide energy and those that do not
What nutrients provide energy? (3) carbohydrates, fats and proteins
nutrients that do NOT provide energy? vitamins, minerals, water and fiber
what three elements do all of the nutrients that provide the body energy contain? (carbs, fats, proteins) carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
carbohydrates are made up of units called ____ sugars
the scientific term for sugar is ___ saccharide
monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides are all ______? carbohydrates
monosaccharides and disaccharides are known as____? simple sugars
monosaccharides include: glucose, fructose and galactose
____ is the sugar that the body uses most efficiently glucose
___ is the sugar found largely in fruits fructose
___ is the sugar which is a product of lactose digestion galactose
disaccharides include: lactose, maltose, and sucrose
____ is the sugar found in milk or milk products lactose
____ is the sugar that is a product of starch maltose
___ is commonly referred to as table sugar sucrose
polysaccharides are also known as: complex carbs
the most common polysaccharides are: starches, glycogen, and fiber
Organic and inorganic chemicals in food that supply energy and raw materials for cellular activities nutrients
term that refers to all the processes involved in the intake and use of nutrients nutrition
the process in which nutrients are used at the cellular level for growth and energy production and excretion of waste metabolism
metabolism occurs in __ phases 2
the two phases of metabolism anabolism and catabolism
____ is the building phase in which smaller molecules such as amino acids are combined to form larger molecules such as proteins anabolism
___ is the breaking down phase in which larger molecules are broken down and converted into smaller units. catabolism
a combination of mechanical and chemical processes that occur in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. Results in the breakdown of nutrients into absorbable forms digestion
the practical application of nutritional science to individuals dietetics
to nurture life, nutrients must perform one or more of three basic functions. List these three functions 1-provide fuel or energy 2-supply material to build and repair tissues 3-regulate metabolic processes
dietary ___ result in undernourishment and may lead to a variety of diseases deficiencies
the amount of energy needed to maintain essential body functions basal metabolism
the amount of energy used by a fasting resting individual to maintain vital functions. basal metabolic rate (BMR)
T or F: BMRs rate is determined by the amount of oxygen used and is defined in units of heat energy called calories. True
Units of heat energy are called? calories
Large calorie abbreviation Cal
Kilocalorie abbreviation kcal
term that is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water 1 degree Celsius. kilocalorie
List the seven food constituents carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, minerals, vitamins, and fiber
most adults ages 20 to 40 need ____ to ____ calories per day 1800 to 2200
T or F: endocrine imbalances can cause obesity True
____ nutrients cannot be manufactured by the body, must be taken in thru diet essential
____nutrients can be created in the body, doesn't need to come from diet. ex-cholesterol in liver and sunlight for vitamin d thru skin nonessential
carbohydrates are primarily ____ products plant
Three categories of carbohydrates: 1-simple sugars, 2-complex carbohydrates, 3-dietary fiber
examples of simple sugars table sugar, molasses, syrup, honey, milk
examples of complex carbohydrates whole grain products, cereal, pasta, rice, potatoes, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and seeds
example of dietary fiber bran, oatmeal, whole grain breads, beans, fruits, veggies, seeds.
To meet energy needs, carbohydrates are metabolized at a rate of __cal/g 4
When digested, carbohydrates convert to ___ glucose
stored amounts of carbohydrates are stored in the ___ and ___ as glycogen liver, muscles
In addition as serving the body as a primary energy source, carbohydrates also do what? regulate protein and fat metabolism
What is the protein-sparing effect, and how does it help protein in the body? As long as there is enough carbohydrates for energy, fats and proteins are spared. Protein can be used then for its intended purpose- to repair and grow tissues
T or F: compared to fats and protein, carbohydrates produce more waste False
The metabolism of fat for energy causes ___ , which can cause increase of acidity of the blood and possible kidney damage ketone bodies
T or F: the CNS needs a constant supply of glucose, however neurons find it difficult to use fat or protein for energy True
T or F: soluble fiber, found in oat bran, peas, beans, certain fruits, and psyllium lowers cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of heart disease. True
Insoluble fiber, found in whole grains and beans promotes ____ bowel _____ regular, movements
Recommended daily fiber intake __ to __ g, or __% to __% of calores 20-35, 45-65%
How many cups of dairy should the average adult/teen have per day? 3
The storage form of fuel used to back up carbohydrates as an available energy source. Fats
fats produce __ cal of energy per gram 9
Fats provide essential fatty acids and are needed for the absorption of the fat soluble vitamins__, __, __, and __, gives food flavor and gives a feeling of satisfaction while eating a,d,e and k
T or F: Lipids are not important to membrane development. False
___ tissue, the stored form of fat in the body, supports and protects body organs, insulates the body to help regulate temperature, and protects fibers and relaying nerve impulses. adipose
when fats are digested, they are broken down into __ acids and ____. fatty, glycerol
the main building blocks of fat are ____ ___ fatty acids
fatty acids can be either ____ or _____ unsaturated, saturated
if fatty acids have one unfilled hydrogen bond, the fat is called __________ monounsaturated
examples of monounsaturated fats olive, peanut, canola oils- pecans-avocados
_________ fats, such as safflower, corn, cottonseed, and soy oils have two or more unfilled hydrogen bonds polyunsaturated
Unsaturated fats found in plants and are usually ___ at room temperature liquid
T or F: good fats may protect against heart disease and breast cancer True
____ fats contain all the hydrogen possible, and are ___ at room temperature saturated, solid
examples of saturated fats whole dairy products, eggs, lard, meat, and hydrogenated fats such as those in soft margarines.
most saturated fats are from ___ sources animal
the primary dietary factor associated with high blood cholesterol levels is a high intake of foods high in _____ fats. saturated.
____ fatty acids are byproducts created when polyunsaturated oils are solidified by the addition of hydrogen. Trans
Trans-fatty acids ____ the shelf life of processed food lengthen
trans-fats are found in dairy and meat naturally, but we get most of these fats from _____ foods processed
Trans fats lower the level of ___-___ lipoprotein (good) and raise the level of ___-____ lipoprotein (bad) high-density, low-density
what is HDL stand for? high density lipoprotein. the "good" cholesterol
what is LDL stand for? low density lipoprotein the "bad" cholesterol
what are the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids? in the cerebral cortex, help form retina, antiinflammatory effects, improve immune response, protect vessels, help prevent blood clots
what are omega-3 fatty acids found in? coldwater fish, canola oil, flaxseed oil, soybean oil, wheat germ oil, walnuts
a ____ is a molecule created when three fatty acids attach to a molecule of glycerol. triglyceride
The structure that is the main storage form of lipids fatty acids attaching to a molecule of glycerol to form a triglyceride
____ in the blood are used as a diagnostic tool for determining a patient's risk for hypertension and heart disease triglycerides
acceptable triglyceride levels for men, and women men-40-160mg/dL women-35 - 135mg/dL
VLDL stands for? very-low density lipoprotein
___ and ___ form atherosclerotic plaque on arterial walls LDL, VLDL
LDL levels should be below: 100mg/dL
HDL levels should be __ or greater 60mg/dL
percentage of fat in diet should be __%? 20 to 35% (17g), saturated fats at no more than 10%
cholesterol should be less than ___mg/day 300
the normal body process of using oxygen for energy, combined with environmental factors, such as pollution and tobacco smoke, causes ____ ____, which cause cellular damage. free radicals
what are the four main antioxidants? vitamin a, c, e and selenium
The main components of proteins are called ___ ___, which are the materials the body uses to build and repair tissues. amino acids
___ amino acids are necessary for normal growth and maintenance of tissues 20
Of the 20 amino acids, __ are essential in the diet because humans don't have the enzymes necessary for their formation 8
___ are classified according to whether they contain all essential amino acids in good proportion proteins
___ proteins come from animal sources, and have all amino acids necessary complete
____ proteins do not supply the body with all amino acids necessary incomplete
protein functions: builds and repairs tissues, blood, enzymes, and hormones, creates antibodies, regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, energy when carbs and fats are depleted
recommended amounts of protein 10% to 35%, 91g
T or F: combining two or more sources of incomplete amino acids provides a complete protein True -ex= black beans and rice
another name for vitamins micronutrients
___ are organic substances that occur in minute quantities in plant and animal tissues and are needed for specific metabolic processes to proceed normally vitamins
vitamins have one of two functions: to facilitate cellular metabolism by acting as a coenzyme with a catalyst, and to act as a component of tissue structure.
a __ allows a chemical reaction to proceed at a much quicker rate and without as much energy input, and a ___ is the nonprotein part that acts with it catalyst, coenzyme
vitamins are divided into two groups, list them fat soluble, water soluble
fat soluble vitamins a,d,e,k
water soluble vitamins b complex and c
vitamin k is created from? intestinal bacteria
T or F: vitamins do not cure an illness other than a health problem that is caused by the lack of a specific vitamin True
vitamin k can interfere with the action of _____ warfarin
minerals are also called? electrolytes
function of minerals water-electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, regulate muscular and nervous activities, blood clotting, and normal heart rhythm.
list the seven major minerals calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfur
list the trace minerals iron, copper, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, maganese, iodine, zinc, cobalt, and flourine
what endocrine gland is involved with iodine? thyroid
what endocrine element is involved with zinc? insulin
___ is an essential part of vitamin b12 cobalt
T or F: large calories are the same as kilocalories True
T or F: 1000 small calories equals 1 kilocalorie True
10g carbohydrates is ingested, how many calories does it yeild? 10g carb X 4 calories/1g carb = 40 calories
Myplate orange represents what? grains, 5-8oz per day
Myplate green represents what? veggies, 2 1/2 cups
Myplate red represents what? fruits, 1 1/2 to 2 cups per day
Myplate blue represents what? dairy, 3 cups
Myplate purple represents what? protein, 5 to 6 1/2 oz
vitamin a carotene or retinol
vitamin a functions antioxidant , dim light vision, mucous membranes, bones
vitamin a sources milk, cod liver oil, green veggies, yellow or orange fruit, margarine
vitamin a deficiency night blindness, xerophthalmia, respiratory, bone issues
Vitamin d cholecalciferol
vitamin d sources eggs, liver, fortified milk
vitamin d functions bone growth
vitamin d deficiencies rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, teeth and muscle issues- toxicity=kidney stones, calcification
vitamin e alpha-tocopherol (beta, delta, gamma)
vitamin e sources wheat germ, margarines, salad dressing, nuts
vitamin e function antioxidant
vitamin e deficiencies neurologic, destruction of RBCs - toxicity=hypertension
vitamin k phytonadione
vitamin k sources egg, liver, milk, green veggies, cabbage
vitamin k functions blood clotting
vitamin k deficiencies clotting issues -toxicity=jaundice
vitamin b1 thiamin
vitamin b1 sources liver, eggs, fish, pork, beef, grains, legumes
vitamin b1 functions coenzyme in oxidation of glucose, metabolism of carbs, maintain normal appetite and nervous system
vitamin b1 deficiencies berberi, gi issues, nervous and cardio system issues
the disease beriberi is characterized by? neuritis, edema, and cardiovascular changes
vitamin b2 riboflavin
vitamin b2 sources poultry, milk, fish, green veggies, cereals, bread
vitamin b2 deficiencies cheilosis, glossitis, photophobia
vitamin b6 pyridoxine
vitamin b6 sources pork, milk, eggs, cereals, legumes
vitamin b6 deficiencies irritability, depression, dermatitis
vitamin b12 cobalamin
vitamin b12 sources seafood, meat, eggs, milk
vitamin b12 function synthesis of RBCs, myelin sheaths
vitamin b2 function aids in energy release from food
vitamin b6 function synthesis of amino acids, antibody production
vitamin b12 deficiencies pernicious anemia
vitamin b3 niacin
vitamin b3 sources milk, eggs, fish, poultry
vitamin b3 function transfers hydrogen atoms
vitamin b3 deficiencies pellagra
vitamin b9 folic acid
vitamin b9 sources liver, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, kidney beans
vitamin b9 function DNA and RBC synthesis, protein metabolism
vitamin b9 deficiencies anemia, glossitis, neural tube defects
biotin vitamin sources milk, liver, legumes, mushrooms
biotin vitamin functions coenzyme in carbs and amino acid metabolism. Niacin synthesis form typtophan
vitamin b5 pantothenic acid
vitamin b5 sources eggs, liver, salmon, mushrooms, cauliflower, peanuts, yeast
vitamin b5 function metabolism of carbs, lipids, and proteins - synthesis of acetylcholine
vitamin c ascorbic acid
vitamin c sources citrus fruits, broccoli, tomatoes, brussels sprouts, potatoes
vitamin c function prevention of scurvy, formation of collagen, healing of wounds, release of stress, absorption of iron, antioxidant
Created by: JenSaw77



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