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Chapter 2

Ancient Civilizations

The wealthy, landowning people who pass their wealth down from generation to generation aristocracy
Chinese term meaning "the correct way" Dao
a government organization bureaucracy
leader of ancient Egypt, believed to have been a god on Earth pharaoh
ancient Egyptian writing used for religious and formal texts hieroglyphics
simplified ancient Egyptian writing used for common, government documents hieratic script
a material created from volcanic glass and used to make precise tools obsidian
respecting and listening to the eldest male member of the family filial piety
believing in only one god monotheistic
a religious ceremony ritual
writing used by the Aryans in the Indus Valley Sanskrit
a ruling family who passes down power from generation to generation dynasty
a seasonal wind that brings heavy rain to South Asia monsoon
one who moves with their herd of animals and uses the animals for food and clothing pastoral nomad
believing in more than one god polytheistic
this was the center of Zapotec civilization Monte Alban
this was the capital of the Kingdom of Israel Jerusalem
the pyramids of Egypt were built during this kingdom Old Kingdom
this language was translated using the Rosetta Stone Egyptian
This was important to the Egyptians because its flooding fertilized and irrigated the land and was part of Egyptian religion Nile River
the idea that a Chinese government can be overthrown if the leader is corrupt and was used to justify the Zhou taking power from the Shang Mandate of Heaven
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two great cities in this civilization Indus Valley
this alphabet contained 22 characters and was adopted by the Greeks, Romans, and Arabs Phoenician
pyramids were built for this purpose tombs for pharaohs
bodies were prepared for the afterlife in ancient Egypt using this technique mummification
this civilization's cities were very well-organized and had advanced sewer systems Indus River Valley
this group was broken into tribes and eventually established Judaism Israelites
these people of South America had a religious center with two pyramids and probably created a simple writing system Chavin
this was a collection of hymns, songs, and prayers that revealed information about early India Vedas
this was the first dynasty of China Shang
this was the longest lasting dynasty in China Zhou
the Indus and Ganges Rivers gain water from melting snow from these mountains Himalayas
these people were called the "rubber people" and grew rubber trees along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico Olmec
this was a major aspect of Chinese religion ancestor worship
this city in Mexico was a thriving trade center, had artisans who specialized in obsidian, and was the first major city in Mesoamerica Teotihuacan
this civilization's writing has not yet been translated Indus Valley
this civilization did not have a strong, central government but a grouping of trading city-states Phoenician
this group practiced a monotheistic religion Israelites
the Middle Kingdom of Egypt lasted from this time period 2055 to 1650 B.C.
the Old Kingdom of Egypt lasted from this time period 2700 to 2200 B.C.
this civilization's social structure had the leader at the top, then nobles and priests, the upper class, and lastly, peasants Egypt
Created by: Mrs. Marquardt