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Modern World History

Enlightenment & Revolution

enlightenment 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of life.
social contract An agreement in which people define and limit their rights in exchange for law and order.
John Locke An English philosopher who stated that people were born with three natural rights- life, liberty, and property and those rights should be protected by the government.
philosophe A French thinkers who believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life.
Voltaire Francios Arouet, a French philosophe known as Voltaire, fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech.
Montesquieu A French writer whose idea of the separation of powers in government became the basis of the United States Constitution.
Rousseau Disagreed with many French philosophes stating that reason, science, and art corrupts society and causes inequality.
Mary Wollstonecraft She fought for education for women and encouraged women to enter male-dominated fields of medicine and politics.
Declaration of Independence A document written using the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment expressing the American colonies right to separate from England on the basis of lack of representation.
Thomas Jefferson The writer of the Declaration of Independence influenced by the Enlightenment thinkers.
checks and balances A system of three branches of government in which each branch checks the action of the other two.
federal system The power of government is divided between national and state governments.
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments added to the U.S. Constitution which protects Americans' basic rights.
Created by: narobd